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The City of Toronto had black residents;48 many were prosperous, owned their homes, and sent their children to separate or integrated schools; a few attended university, and the black community sustained several churches and a debating lyceum. Ben Blackburn, whom Drew encountered in Windsor, had recently arrived with a gang of seventeen others following a mile journey from Maysville, Kentucky.
Robert Nelson, a slave from Boone County in Kentucky, came to Canada in despite fearful warnings about what he might encounter there. John Hunter received some education in Maryland and ran away when he learned he was to be sold. Isaac Riley and her husband traveled about six hundred miles, from Perry County in Missouri to Windsor; they settled first in a Frenchspeaking district possibly Tecumseh or LaSalle , then in St. Catharines, and finally in Buxton, where their children attended school and studied Latin and Greek.
This seemed so to me, long before I came here; every day confirms me in the opinion. Our enemies see it, know it, deplore it, hate it. In the same letter, Ward disparages the other alternative held out for black Americans: emigration to Liberia. For its advocates, Liberia held the promise of a black republic, a reverse emigration project for the recolonization of Africa by black Americans. For a man like Patrick Snead, who left Georgia in and lived in Toronto by , learning about Liberia was eye-opening.
Snead was an accomplished cooper and plied this trade for a while in Savannah, where he was owned by a free black man. I then told him, that I hoped one day to be my own man, and if so, that I wished to go to Liberia.
Samuel Joseph May, a Unitarian minister from Syracuse New York, who had renounced the colonization movement in the s, offered encouragement for social uplift. The free people of color, as they are called in mockery, are regarded as below contempt.
Thus rejecting African colonization without needing to name it,66 Thompson wound up his two-and-a-half-hour address by reminding his auditors in Toronto of their local and transnational responsibility. Their sighs come to you with every breeze from the South. Oh, haste to help them, that this glorious continent may be freed from its pollution and its curse. Give the fugitive your aid. You have thus far done nobly. Continue to receive kindly and to cherish hospitably, on these shores, the refugees from the house of American bondage.
Give the abolitionists your sympathy. The third speaker was Frederick Douglass, who first allied with Thompson in , as part of the Evangelical Alliance that objected to slaveholding by American Presbyterians. Douglass was also expected to identify Canada as a haven for runaway slaves. Go there and be free; go to the British Lion, and be freed from the talons and the beak of the American Eagle! On this point he spoke boldly. Douglass called for his audience to emulate Madison Washington, hero of the Creole revolt.
Douglass had yet to write The Heroic Slave, but the story was frequently on his mind. It is based on the case of a coastal trader transporting slaves from Virginia for sale in New Orleans.
Boarded at Nassau by black soldiers, the Bahamians proclaimed that the ship came under British law and that, by broad interpretation of the Somerset decision, every slave aboard was free. The nineteen insurrectionists were cleared by the courts four months later and also became freemen.
While in Canada, Washington was powerless to help his family or challenge the institution of slavery; back in the grip of the oppressor, he could lead himself and others to liberty in the port of Nassau, New Providence Island.
In Canada, George eschews agrarian occupations and finds the necessary uplift to fulfill his natural capacity as a mechanic, yet this does not suffice. In Paris, he becomes a scholar; in Liberia, he expects to become a leader. Thus, Canada is a staging post for becoming free, and Liberia, the new republic recolonized by blacks, is a platform for global advocacy.
Without evident judgment, though at the risk of alienating Garrisonians and other prominent abolitionist factions, Stowe invites readers to imagine her characters in both locales. As a committee of Amherstburg blacks stated in , Resolved, That this convention in behalf of the American slaves, tender its thanks to Mrs. Family ties sustain the kinds of daring return made by Jim for his mother in Ohio and by Madison Washington for his wife in Virginia. As dependent as this reunion is on storytelling coincidence,79 the affective content ties together specific, meaningful locations: Canada West as embarkation point; francophone Montreal as disembarkation point; France where George completed his education and the West Indies where de Thoux married, was liberated, and inherited a fortune  as pivots to opportunity; and Liberia as the location where George imagines taking a hitherto unknown form of political agency.
It seemed to us as if the author had spoiled her work and planted the stiletto of a murderous prejudice in the bosoms of those whom it had been her purpose to protect and befriend.
Certainly, many abolitionists on both sides of the border sought to make settlement there a pragmatic option as long as slavery persisted in the United States. Recapitulation of the stories of runaways, captured slaves, and immigrants kept the need for Canadian activism alive for readers of newspapers, as suggested by the demise of Voice of the Fugitive at the end of and the commencement of the Provincial Freeman in March Yet the performative interconnections of stage minstrelsy and Tom shows were at variance with the largely pro-abolitionist readings of the novel.
Notes Special thanks go to Ivy Wilson for astute advice and to Elynne Whaley for research assistance. Matlack New York: Henry Bibb, , Thomas Moore Paris: A. Galignan, , Stage adaptations are another matter. Henson , Henson made many journeys back to the United States, to conduct business on behalf of the British American Institute and Dawn Mills sawmill and to participate in fundraising, especially in Boston. He also made three journeys to Britain, preaching in dozens of localities in England and Scotland.
Alexander M. Ross corroborated the likelihood that slaves from Virginia and the border slave states were unlikely to know that reaching Canada could be feasible. He toured the South under the pretext of collecting ornithological specimens and found ways to inform slaves about Canada. See Wilbur H. Thomas Davis London: Henry G. Bohn, , William R. Marsh, , Irish immigration swelled the numbers arriving in the Canadas from Great Britain and Ireland from 31, persons in to , in the peak year of For slaves escaping through Kentucky, the Ohio River demarcated the state lines, with Indiana and Ohio to the north; tributaries led to Columbus and Oberlin.
Lake Erie is part of a separate watershed. Pattison, ; reprint, Peterborough: Broadview, , Power, letter to the editor, Voice of the Fugitive, 12 February , 1. Disguise was not unusual for escapees. See Siebert, Shadd, In Upper Canada, tobacco was first cultivated in by former slaves from Virginia and Kentucky Silverman, Sharon A.
Hotchkiss, letter to the editor, Voice of the Fugitive, 26 February , 1. Voice of the Fugitive, 8 April , 2. Introduction to Black Abolitionist Papers, ed. Siebert, Philadelphia: Porter and Coates, Allen P. Drew, Stouffer, Report of the Committee on Emigration, Report of the Committee on Emigration, 8. Ronald M.
American Presbyterians offered a gift to Scottish crofters suffering the first wave of the potato blight; Thompson and Douglass urged Scottish clergy to reject it. See George Thompson and Henry C. S43, Library of Congress. See Robert S. John W. The cabin is part of the Ontario Heritage Trust. The anti-colonization position of influential nineteenth-century African Americans, including David Walker and Frederick Douglass, has carried the day. Washington dedicates a good deal of his lengthy essay to considering colonization in relation to abolition, lamenting how supporters of each cause have become antagonists instead of allies.
In siding with abolitionists and neglecting the pro-colonization position, scholars have associated George Harris primarily with Frederick Douglass and other prominent educated blacks on whom Stowe also drew to develop the character. By doing so, we have missed not just his connection to Washington but also, significantly, more complicated understandings that were possible at the time, about abolition and colonization, fact and fiction, and the United States and Liberia.
Recognizing this, Washington dedicates his essay to carving out a more moderate position. For our own part, under the existing state of things, we cannot see why any hostility should exist between those who are true Abolitionists and that class of Colonizationists who are such from just and benevolent motives.
Nor can we see a reason why a man of pure and enlarged philanthropy may not be in favor of both, unless his devotion to one should cause him to neglect the other.
Extremes in any case are always wrong. As with Washington, such cooperation is the means to ultimately separatist ends. Harris therefore concludes that a fully black nation in Africa is the necessary alternative.
It is with the oppressed, enslaved African race that I cast in my lot. Augustus Washington, a colored man of more than ordinary talents, has, in the agony of despair, written a long article in the New York Tribune commending the whole infernal scheme which at present is filling the whole Colonization ranks with rejoicing.
A critical remark of one of our correspondents, to whom we had sent a copy, is rather peculiar, and no doubt, will be considered quite complimentary to the author. One such reader and leader was Edward W. Pinney of the American Colonization Society ACS and published in the African Repository reveals that Blyden was a voracious reader of print imported into Liberia, with an especially keen eye for how the contentious republic was being represented in the United States.
Harriet B. As we have seen, representations of the distant republic typically offered up examples of successes in its early development, as grounds for imagining a full-fledged and thriving nation in the not-too-distant future. Such representations of Liberia and Liberians had even higher stakes. Nothing less than the capacities of people of African descent for self-government and self-sufficiency were on trial in the court of global public opinion swayed toward doubt by the racist science of ethnology , and the unsaved souls of native Africans were at risk in the eyes of evangelical Christians.
In the summer of , Augustus Washington produced two daguerreotypes as just such evidence: one featured a view of Monrovia from the harbor lighthouse, and the other showed the Liberian presidential mansion. At the time, daguerreotypy was considered the most accurate and objective form of representation possible; the highly detailed images, promoted as made through the agency of sunlight and chemistry instead of subjective human hands, carried significant authority as evidence.
Emigrants from the United States had imported and established many of the same discriminatory views and practices that they had fled, as we discover in a series of critical letters from Augustus Washington detailing conditions in Liberia after he and his family had emigrated in late Some few families allow them wages, and thus their servants are decently clothed. In some families they are allowed per day a quart of rice, some palm oil, and otherwise well fed.
In other families they are poorly fed from mere scraps of rice and cassada [sic]. In others again they are not only worked nearly naked, but half starved.
And this flogging, kicking and cuffing is done to a shameful extent by upstart boys, scolding, brainless women, and gentlemen of rank and standing, calling themselves Christians. The next year, when the story finished publication in the National Era at the beginning of April and was subsequently published as a novel, emigrated, and in , as its immense popularity continued, there were emigrants.
It became an enormously popular tale of the injustices of slavery. Uncle Tom, an almost Christ-like model of goodness and charity, was a house slave who was reluctantly sold by his first owners.
Ultimately, Simon Legree, a tyrannical overseer, beat Uncle Tom to death after he had exemplified many heart-rending examples of generosity and heroism in the community. The novel is believed to have been a major cause of the Civil War. It popularized the abolitionist movement in the United States. Today, the term Uncle Tom is used pejoratively to describe a black American who is too deferential to whites. This group and their offspring have an antipathy towards African Liberians.
In this essay, I use the terms that were most commonly used in nineteenth-century discourse about Liberia and other proposed and established colonies for emancipated slaves and free blacks, colonization as in the American Colonization Society and emigrants the word that Augustus Washington and others used to designate nonnative African settlers of Liberia.
By doing so, I do not mean to suggest that Liberia was or is not an instance of settler colonialism or to ignore the complications of how this instance of settler colonialism motivated by racial nationalism and an idea of racial identity with native Africans failed to materialize in practice. For a helpful timeline of important publications and their lifespans in the limited print culture of early Liberia, see Momo K.
Rogers Sr. For decades, the most significant scholarship on Liberia and the colonization movement was comprised of P. The American Colonization Society established Liberia as a colony in ; it became an independent republic in See also Robert B.
Eric J. Letter of M. Lynch, Edward W. Edward W. Dinius The Camera and the Press, introd. According to Staudenraus ibid. This question has replaced the famous: How are you? As a transnational signifier, race is ambivalent and indeterminate, but it also accrues concrete associations in particular cultural contexts. The fictional story plays with these tensions by questioning what constitutes blackness and who can understand and interpret the black experience. Unable to speak English, they attempt to communicate with her in a French black dialect, which she does not understand.
It might also imply that Stowe, as a white woman like her white French translators , did not really speak the language of Caribbeans and African Americans, despite her celebrity in France as a kindred advocate for abolition.
In January , Le charivari humorously portrayed the rival plays in competition: a cartoon shows two theater managers fighting over Uncle Tom in a tug-of-war fig.
It ran for twenty-nine nights. Each of the playwrights approached the act of adaptation with different aims, and their texts display crucial differences, which I will discuss in further detail below. In each of the plays, this white male character protects Elisa from the slave catchers, despite his awareness of the illegality of his actions. Furthermore, the theme of the education and civilization of the slaves was played up by each of the adaptations, discussed in reviews, and reinforced by the onstage semiotics of race and gender.
The metaphor of paternalism, which was a common trope for understanding slavery in France and its Caribbean colonies, pervaded the remaking and reception of the Uncle Tom story on the French stage. The trope of fathering operated at the levels of both individual characters and larger ideologies of national politics. Whereas the play by Dumanoir and Dennery and that by De Beauplan reinforced the status quo of this paternalist vision of slavery and abolition, Texier and Wailly questioned it.
French-language literature, from the Enlightenment philosophers to the French romantics of the nineteenth century, had long debated and criticized the institution of slavery albeit often ambivalently.
White women and writers of color defended the novel. Saint-Remy was unequivocal in his praise of Stowe. The texts of the eleven different French translations of the novel already present various modifications and transformations, many of which appear to be ideologically driven.
In his preface to his play Toussaint Louverture, Lamartine positioned melodrama as a key genre for popularizing black emancipation. For example, an play by Dumanoir and AnicetBourgeois, Le docteur noir The black doctor , tells the story of a talented mixed-race doctor who cannot be with the white woman he loves, due to the racism of her mother, an antediluvian marquise.
In contrast, the Uncle Tom plays portrayed Elisa as the pure, objectified victim, but they also made her sexuality a sensationalist theme.
In the play by Dumanoir and Dennery and that by De Beauplan, her sexual attractiveness and desirability are highly exaggerated. In addition to the antislavery message, the playwrights also used their Uncle Tom plays as means of commenting on other social issues, particularly French censorship of the theater. Out of necessity, the plays significantly decreased the number of different settings and combined several characters.
In the play by Dumanoir and Dennery and that by De Beauplan, this character is Senator Bird, who is obsessed with the law. Table 1. It is no coincidence that the most popular adaptation, that by Dumanoir and Dennery, was also the most overtly masculinized and secularized. The playwrights did not transfer Uncle Tom from one context to another so much as play with its palimpsestic qualities.
This allowed the French melodramas to figure Uncle Tom as, simultaneously, 1 a view into American slavery, 2 an opportunity to comment on current French politics, and 3 a transnational, transferrable parable for all former slaveholding nations.
To be sure, France profited considerably from the enterprise of slavery. In the eighteenth century, the colony of SaintDomingue which would become Haiti rose far above all other islands in terms of productivity and profits.
By midcentury, it was producing more sugar for France than was produced for England on all of the British islands combined.
In , it ranked fourth in sugar production. Slavery was originally abolished in the French colonies in , with the French Revolution, but Napoleon reinstated slavery in The second and final abolition of slavery was decreed in , along with the Second Republic. Shortly thereafter, in , Napoleon III declared himself emperor and granted himself dictatorial powers.
French theatergoers could thus see the Uncle Tom plays as both speaking to and dissociated from French concerns. On the one hand, France had profited immensely from slavery, and its final abolition was just five years old. To translate American culture, customs, and realities for French target spectators, the adaptations relied on theatrical devices such as picturesque scenic design and music evoking the landscapes and sounds of the United States.
Because married women were thought to be the most fertile and because France was anxious over the need to respect Christian values, enslaved men and women were encouraged to marry each other. If two slaves from different plantations were in love, masters would often make arrangements so that they could be together. They could force enslaved men and women to marry or could separate them, as they saw fit. Domesticating translation choices were also treated self-reflexively onstage. When discussing slave sales, the characters drink eau-de-vie, a fruit brandy and French specialty.
Does it come from France? The plays explain the term and its U. I call you Uncle Tom. The French playwrights may have been inspired by the ways in which Stowe associated France with emancipation and education, but they do not reproduce such small details. The concept of paternalism was a prominent metaphor for making sense of slavery in nineteenth-century France. Like the broader rhetoric, paternalism in the French plays operates on both the national and individual family levels and involves slippage between the father figure and the nation as father.
Paternalistic Melodramas In this final section, I offer a closer view into the French melodramas. The published plays constitute my most important archival source, since the play text is the most complete trace of the cultural and ideological translation to which I have access. It is also important to note that the social life of the text extended beyond the evening of the performance.
During the nineteenth century, as Angela Pao points out, there was a great demand for printed texts, which were often read aloud socially, facilitating ongoing engagement with a play after its performance.
First, I examine the mixed-race characters, which serve to stress the arbitrariness of race and are linked to the sensationalistic theme of interracial sex. At a time when the social category of race was being delineated, these mixed-race characters served to question the meanings of race.
Mixed-race characters additionally implied a history of interracial sex, which became a sensationalistic theme. In these cases, the black and brown makeup served not only as a signifier of racial difference but also as a reminder of the arbitrariness of biological race as opposed to education. These characters, in other words, were portrayed as both white and black, transgressively slipping between the two social categories.
The playwrights could exploit the sensationalist potential of a mixed-race woman onstage while conveying an antislavery political message. Given that her father is black and her mother would then, probably, be white , her sensationalist appeal as a mixed-race woman was less powerful and perhaps even offputting, given the general anxiety surrounding sexual and romantic relationships between a white woman and a black man.
When Locker tries to recapture Elisa, Kentucki their version of Bird asks Elisa publicly whether she is a slave, requesting that she simply give a yes or no answer. When she denies her enslaved status, Kentucki insists that Locker must provide evidence. Finally, you are not mixed-race, because I, whose race is pure, I touch your hand. A mixed-race slave owner or trader was a more realistic scenario in the French context, given that mixed-race men commonly owned slaves in the French Caribbean colonies.
In fact, free people of color in Saint-Domingue owned one-third of the plantations, one-fourth of the slaves, and one-third of real estate. In his adaptation, Haley was formerly a slave on the same plantation as Tom, where Haley was known as Samuel. Tom and Samuel were childhood friends. One of their mothers cut the dollar in half and hung one half around each of their necks. Harris wishes to own Elisa.
When she is about to be sold on the auction block, Harris menacingly states that he finds her more beautiful when she is in desperation and tears. Haley tries to entice Elisa with power and material items, but she is uninterested.
As the ultimate object of paternalism, Elisa also becomes a sexual object. Before the bidding begins, the evil Harris declares that Elisa will belong to him, even if he must pay twice her value.
Stage directions script repeated instances of Elisa swooning, crying, and falling on a chair. He thanks Bird for having set the terms of the duel for him and then fights Harris himself.
Interracial sex and the fungibility of race were together associated with Uncle Tom not only on but off the Parisian stages. Machanette, having forgotten the black makeup hidden under his shirt, went to help one of the women and consequently almost asphyxiated her from the fumes. Through several comic characters, the plays suggest that before black slaves are freed, they need to be educated by their masters. Onstage dialogue links the black comic characters with monkeys on stage.
The patois invented by Dumanoir and Dennery incorporated Creole words and used incorrect grammar. By the devil! Bengali serves as an example of a slave who should not have been freed before being schooled. Early on in the play, he states that he has never learned how to bring up his children and thus relies on his good master Shelby to do that. Adolphe, who is comically extravagant, is a perpetual child. He wishes not for his freedom but, rather, to belong to a master worthy of his comically refined tastes for riches and luxuries.
Tom, Elisa, Georges, and Henri are consequently able to reach Canada. Critics lauded the well-known actor Chilly for his portrayal of Bird. A line drawing shows Chilly in his Senator Bird costume, with the rifle he uses to shoot the slave catchers, despite the illegality of his actions fig. This judgment of fathers is symbolically linked with geography. Whereas Stowe was careful to avoid equating the South with slavery and villainy, the French stage adaptations drew clear lines between the U.
North and Canada, associated with progress, and the U. When called on to fight Harris in a duel, Bird comments that Southern duels are barbarous and ferocious, unlike the duels common in old Europe. The play by Dumanoir and Dennery and that by De Beauplan show how slaves can be put in precarious situations when their good masters die or are forced to sell them due to extenuating circumstances, such as debt.
Texier and Wailly once again question the paternalist discourse by presenting a more ambivalent view of the so-called good master. However, Tom is portrayed as not a powerful father but, rather, an ineffective one. Due to his Christian zeal, he is tragically unable to protect Elisa.
When Kentucki announces that the slave catchers must prove that Elisa is a slave, Elisa almost escapes. When Tom is asked to swear on the Bible, he cannot help but admit that Elisa is his daughter and a slave from the Shelby planation. Transatlantic Paternalism All the plays portray Elisa as in need of not one father but several.
In each of the plays, a community of mostly men is mobilized to save Elisa. Elisa asks where they are. Promised land, free land! Revived, Tom kneels by the body of Harris killed in the duel by Georges and asks God to pardon the dead man. He experiences what he deems a conflict between his heart and his head. This preoccupation with the law served several purposes. It was a judgment of the United States, both for the Fugitive Slave Act and for having not yet abolished slavery; with abolition in its colonies in , France had already resolved the tensions that plagued Bird.
His conflict was also a reflection of a particular tension in French law. In plays that self-reflexively presented themselves as cultural translations, the theme of the law served to position France on a global topography, in relation to other slaveholding nations, particularly the United States. As Lucas points out, at a time when U. French law at that time repressed theater artists, but the plays slyly suggested that performance might be a tool for changing the political situation.
While critically different from one another, all three French stage adaptations of Uncle Tom put the spotlight on Elisa, portrayed other black characters as children in need of education, and showed a white male hero who respects, defies, and rewrites the law. These plays made meaning from the Uncle Tom story by staging, reinforcing, and contesting the predominant metaphor for understanding slavery in nineteenth-century France: paternalism.
All otherwise unattributed translations throughout this essay are mine. Meer, 8. Edmond Texier and L. The French text is available through Gallica. Theater announcements consulted via Gallica, BnF. Birdoff, Meer, 9. Doris Y. Lucas, Stowe recalled receiving numerous visits from members of former French abolitionist organizations. For investigations of French-language antislavery writing and its relation to race, gender, and the debates surrounding cultural memory, see Doris Y.
I thank Doris Kadish for sharing this source. McCormick, Scholars have nonetheless nuanced this characterization of the U.
Alphonse de Lamartine, preface in Toussaint Louverture, ed. See ibid. Quoted in Pao, 65; see also Krakovitch, Pao, Texier and Wailly, De Beauplan, 5. This total more accurately represents the number of enslaved Africans taken to both Antillean islands. Guadeloupe acquired most of its slaves via Martinique rather than from French carriers arriving from Africa.
See Miller; Peabody; Reinhardt. De Beauplan, 2. De Beauplan, 10; Texier and Wailly, 4. De Beauplan, 8; Texier and Wailly, 1, 8. Texier and Wailly, 1. Texier and Wailly, 2. See also Texier and Wailly, 2. Kadish, Fathers, Daughters, and Slaves, 2.
Garraway, Richard D. Chalaye, Dumanoir and Dennery, 2. De Beauplan, 1. Reinhardt, See reviews by J. De Beauplan, 37, See, for example, A. Dennery and Dumanoir], 20 January , Her fainting becomes a sort of tragic flaw in Texier and Wailly, since it enables the slave catchers to take Henri from her. See, for example, Texier and Wailly, Texier and Wailly, 9. Vinet, paraphrased in Lucas, De Beauplan, Bird also explains that slaves are property recognized by the law Most traffickers evaded their blockade,5 and ten thousand Africans were brought illegally to Cuba annually in the s and s.
The continued breach of treaties had strained relations with England but was a calculated risk. I argue that this theatrical adaptation was a response to the crisis over American expansionist intentions in Cuba and was a cultural and political critique of the slave trade to Cuba.
The second edition and six other translations also sold quickly. These four newspapers were among the eight with the largest subscription rates in Spain. Basing his calculations on the rates of twelve to fifteen thousand copies per newspaper or installment edition and 3.
With a literate population of 3,, in Spain in , this novel therefore reached approximately 5 to 20 percent of all potential readers, or 1 to 5 percent of the entire national population of 15,, In months, the character and the novel were frequently referred to in the periodical press, even in magazines that never fully discussed the work. Canmore, just outside Banff, is the ideal place for beginners and beyond.
Climbing shops, a climbing school www. All levels of climbers bask in the spring sun while climbing the plus gneiss and nice, too! It features hundreds of tours, from day trips to summit missions to epic traverses. While Canadians are practically born on skates, it might take you a couple of hours to get the hang of it.
Skating has spawned many a Canadian pastime and takes regional forms. Grassroots hockey, aka pond hockey, takes place in communities across Canada every night on a frozen surface. All you need is a puck, a hockey stick and a few friends to live the hockey dream.
Winnipeg, Manitoba, notorious for chilly winters, has 3km of cleared ice on the Assiniboine and Red rivers. In Alberta, you can race in the Sylvan Lake 50km Marathon on a 10km track, the longest in the world. They just don a pair of warm mitts, a down jacket, crampons and an ice axe, and are pretty well ready to take on the most abundant and consistent ice climbing in the world. Banff, Kootenay, Yoho and Jasper national parks remain frozen for six months a year, and by early November notorious routes like Polar Circus and Curtain Call are in full form.
As in summer, Canmore is the place to get started and take a lesson. With www. Great for climbers, hikers and sightseers. Give yourself a couple of weeks to work your way up ft or m this ice-riddled Kluane National Park massif. For better odds all around, watch out for the more common and visible Canadian critters. The Arctic has tusked narwhals and belugas, while Nova Scotia has humpbacks, minkes and the rare North Atlantic right whale.
Polar bear can be spotted in Churchill, Manitoba on the shores of Hudson Bay. Operators will tour you around the Polar Bear Capital of the World in elevated tundra buggies.
At one time 60 million bison roamed the North American plains. Over 50 grizzlies live on this 45,hectare refuge. A few eco-tour operators have permits for viewing this at-risk species.
The mountain national parks Banff, Jasper, Kooteany, Yoho also offer a chance to see these rare omnivores. But driving, hiking or cycling in Algonquin Provincial Park is a golden opportunity to see each and every one. Return to beginning of chapter FISHING It should probably come as no surprise that some of the best fishing in the world can be found in a country that harbors more freshwater than any other. Elaborate native societies based their entire nutritional structure around fish, and fishing has since become a sacred recreation.
Calgary Stampede www. Logger Sports www. See pros carve chairs, hand-saw at lightning speeds and cut trees with pinpoint precision in this heritage event held in Squamish, BC, in the first week of August. Yukon Quest www. Survivor Kananaskis www. Last one standing wins. Held the last weekend in May on the Kananaskis River, one hour west of Calgary. Less controversial than a hockey scrum, fights at the end of a fishing line are equally exciting.
The fiercer, the longer and the more unpredictable the fish fight, the better. And on just about any Canadian freshwater lake, you could get yourself into a serious brouhaha. Northern Saskatchewan contains some of the most productive lakes, and many are serviced by fishing lodges. Check local, provincial and federal fishing regulations wherever you are; most hardware or fishing shops can tell you everything there is to know.
Scuba divers can become one with one of the most abundant and diverse marine areas on earth from the perfectly-placed ocean cities of Vancouver and Victoria. Ocean life here also benefits from the cold, nutrient-rich water. June and September are best for mere mortals, but if you want to test some of the fiercest storms the Pacific can dish out, try surfing in winter.
First-timers will enjoy the challenge with many great surf schools both east and west. Tofino, outside Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, has a superb choice of surf schools and offers the most variety for learning.
Squamish, BC Click here, benefits greatly from a wind-funneling venturi effect, which gets wild in Howe Sound. No trees hold back the wind; only power-generating wind farms compete for a chunk of the gust. Sheltered lagoons offer safe learning locations for testing kiteboards or seeking shelter during heavy days.
Today, horses help all kinds of people, from couch potatoes to the uberactive, get out to enjoy the landscape. Be ready to get down and dirty. Most Ontarians live in the south within a few hundred kilometers of the US border, where winters are bearable and steamy summers lure folks outside.
No longer a steadfast political filing cabinet, contemporary Ottawa is as hip as you want it to be. Year-round, Ontario celebrates its diversity with a cavalcade of festivals. And if you must seek out wildlife, there are some excellent national parks here too. The first Europeans on the scene were 17th-century French fur traders, who established basic forts to facilitate trade links with the Mississippi River. With the arrival of the British Loyalists around , large-scale settlement began.
The northern continental climate sees bitterly cold winters and mild summers. This creates steady precipitation throughout the year, heavy summer humidity and much milder winters than in the north. That said, the entire province is blanketed with heavy snowfalls during winter. In the south, where most of the population lives, winter snow melts rapidly in spring.
As summer draws closer, the strip of land bordering the USA gets increasingly hot and sticky, particularly the Niagara Peninsula.
There are also provincial parks here, offering hiking and camping facilities. Make reservations with Ontario Parks ; www. Charismatic megafauna has largely been evicted from southern Ontario due to development and agriculture, but the further north you travel, the more likely you are to spot hairy roadside individuals no, not lumberjacks.
Two Weeks Feel like a road trip? Heading northwest, take a paddle through the expansive Algonquin Provincial Park, visit Manitoulin Island for a dose of aboriginal culture, and try Sudbury and Sault Ste Marie for a history lesson on shipping and mining in northern Ontario.
Continue westward and base yourself in Wawa for a few days. Greater expanses of unexplored nature lie ahead as you roll on toward Thunder Bay and beyond.
Air Canada www. CanJet www. First Air www. BUS Greyhound Canada www. Booking bus tickets at least seven days in advance can sometimes halve the fare. The big car-hire companies have offices in larger towns. Click here for key highways. Ontario Northland www. Its Northlander service connects Toronto with Cochrane, from where buses go to Hearst and Kapuskasing. Dramatic shifts in weather elicit almost schizophrenic behavior from the locals. Humidity clogs the avenues and the streetlife hum approaches a roar.
Spanked across the face by bitter February, locals head underground into the PATH network of subterranean walkways. And of course, winter is hockey season!
Overlayed by typically laconic Canadian attitude, Toronto is as unpretentious and tolerant as it is complex. Tommy Thompson Park, an artificial wildlife oasis, juts abstractly into Lake Ontario; the Toronto Islands rustle their leafy boughs at the city skyline. In the British took over and John Simcoe, lieutenant governor of the new Upper Canada, chose the site as the capital formerly at Niagara-on-the-Lake and founded the town of York.
The Americans looted and razed York, but held sway for only six days before Canadian troops booted them out and hounded them back to Washington. Like many big cities, Toronto had a great fire; in about five hectares of the inner city burned, leveling buildings. Amazingly, no one was killed. Well over one million immigrants have arrived since: Italian, Portuguese, Chilean, Greek, Southeast Asian, Chinese and West Indian immigrants have rolled into the city in waves.
Just offshore are the Toronto Islands. The Church-Wellesley Village is a gay parallel universe a few blocks to the east. Lester B Pearson International Airport is 27km west of downtown.
MapArt www. Shuffle over to St Lawrence Market for lunch then head up to Bloor-Yorkville to splash some cash in the shops. Compensate with a thrifty dinner in Chinatown. Afterwards, ride the ferry to the Toronto Islands; hire a bike and wheel away the afternoon. Back on the mainland, nibble on late-night mezes Greek tapas and drinks in Greektown. A trashy night club-hopping through the Entertainment District is a mandatory T.
TheatreBooks Map; ; www. Metro www. Now Toronto www. Toronto Life www. Toronto Star www. Toronto Sun www. Where Toronto www. CIUT Edge Hospital for Sick Children Map; ; www. Money American Express , ; www. Instead, tackle the banks, or try Money Mart Map; ; www. Thomas Cook www. Tourism Toronto Map; , ; www. Most homeless people are more likely to be assaulted or harassed than to do so to you. The Toronto Islands are where locals retreat for a bit of peace and quiet.
North from the lake, modernity and history collide at Dundas Sq: shopping centers, office blocks, museums and majestic theatres all stake their claim.
Suburban East Toronto and The Beaches are less edgy but are still interesting to explore. Car-parking in Toronto is expensive and traffic congestion is an issue; public transportation is usually the best option. Ferries for the Toronto Islands dock here. Its primary function is as a radio and TV communications tower, but relieving tourists of as much cash as possible seems to be the second order of business. Tours include a brain-scrambling video wall screening footage of past sporting glories, concerts and events, a sprint through a box suite, a locker-room detour sans athletes and a memorabilia museum.
In between times the facility hosts everything from wedding expos to Wiggles concerts. Rooms overlooking the field can also be rented at the Renaissance Toronto.
Performances sometimes take place on the covered outdoor concert stage by the lake. Today, a handful of the original log, stone and brick buildings have been restored. In summer, men decked out in 19th-century British military uniforms carry out preposterous marches and drills, firing musket volleys into the sky. Tours run hourly from May to September. When lakeside fishers noticed that northern pike were spawning here each spring, the city took it upon itself to create this new habitat.
Aside from the pike, look for monarch butterflies, mallard ducks, goldfinches, dragonflies and red-winged blackbirds. Contact the Harbourfront Centre box office left for performance schedules and guided tour details. Additional attractions like the human-sized MegaMaze and House of Blues concerts at the Molson Amphitheatre ; www. Discounted passes may be available after 5pm and for grounds-only admission.
On rainy days, many of the rides, activities and restaurants close. The shuttle runs daily from June to August, and on weekends in May and September, departing every half-hour between 9am and 7pm. Other events held at Exhibition Place throughout the year include the Grand Prix of Toronto and a slew of spectator sports and indie design shows.
At other times the grounds are often spookily bereft of visitors. Financial District The area around Union Station is busy night and day with hot-dog vendors, shivering office workers smoking in doorways and fans heading to hockey games at the Air Canada Centre.
Even visitors unfamiliar with this super-fast, ultraviolent sport will be impressed with the interactive multimedia exhibits and hockey nostalgia. A succession of glass cases displays otter, bear, eagles and carved Inuit figures in day-to-day scenes. Old York Historically speaking, the old town of York comprises just 10 square blocks. But today the neighborhood extends east of Yonge St all the way to the Don River, and from Queen St south to the waterfront esplanade.
The restored, high-trussed South Market houses more than 50 specialty food stalls: cheese vendors, fishmongers, butchers, bakers and pasta makers. Inside the old council chambers upstairs, the St Lawrence Market Gallery ; admission free; 10am-4pm Wed-Fri, 9am-4pm Sat, noon-4pm Sun has rotating displays of paintings, photographs, documents and historical relics.
A few steps further north, the glorious St Lawrence Hall is topped by a mansard roof and a copper-clad clock tower that can be seen for blocks. Chemicals, sewage and fertilizer runoff have traditionally fouled the waters, and, although the situation is improving, only the brave and stupid dare to swim at city beaches. For most citizens, Lake Ontario is simply a big, gray, cold thing that stops the Americans from driving up Yonge St. For the record, Lake Ontario is the 14th largest lake in the world and the smallest and most easterly of the five Great Lakes: km long, 85km wide and m deep.
Be sure to tell the locals all about it. Wedding parties shoot photos against a backdrop of redbrick and cobblestone; clean-cut couples shop for leather lounge suites beneath charmingly decrepit gables and gantries. In summer expect live jazz, exhibitions and food-focused events.
You can peek at the radio newsrooms anytime or attend a free noontime concert in the world-class Glenn Gould Studio. Both are east of the Queen St shopping district. Out the front is Nathan Phillips Square, a meeting place for skaters, demonstrators and office workers on their lunch breaks.
The fountain pool becomes an ice-skating rink in winter Click here. Now housing legal courtrooms, the hall has an off-center bell tower, interesting murals and grimacing gargoyles. Constructed in , the stunning Winter Garden was built as the flagship for a vaudeville chain that never really took off, while the downstairs Elgin theater was converted into a movie house in the s. Public tours are worth every cent.
Click here. When it opened in , it was the first church in Toronto not to charge parishioners for pews. Workshops teach batik making, weaving, knitting and all manner of needle-stuff. Prices will rise once renovations are complete and opening hours are subject to change; check the website for updates. The Leafs lost their first game to the Chicago Blackhawks in , but went on to win 13 Stanley Cups before relocating to the Air Canada Centre in Over the years, Elvis, Sinatra and the Beatles have all belted out tunes at the Gardens.
Rumors that this much-loved piece of city history was going to be demolished were only partly true. The Gardens were bought by grocery chain Loblaws in , with a shopping complex redevelopment slated to begin in early we hope the chunky art-deco facade survives. The new work involves a magnificent explosion of architectural crystals on Bloor St, housing an array of new galleries. The Chinese temple sculptures, Gallery of Korean Art and costumery and textile collections are some of the best in the world.
Kids file out of yellow school buses chugging by the sidewalk and rush to the dinosaur rooms, Egyptian mummies and Jamaican bat-cave replica. The on-site Institute of Contemporary Culture explores current issues through art, architecture, lectures and moving image. Peruse some 19th-century French chestnut-crushing clogs, aboriginal Canadian polar boots or famous modern pairs worn by Elton John, Indira Gandhi and Pablo Picasso.
Permanent and rotating exhibits cover the evolution of shoemaking, with a focus on how shoes have signified social status throughout human history. Spread over three floors, collections cover several millennia; various rooms focus on 17th- and 18th-century English tavern ware, Italian Renaissance majolica, ancient American earthenware and blue-and-white Chinese porcelain.
The central St George campus is venerable indeed. West and north of U of T lies The Annex, a residential neighborhood populated primarily by students and professors. It overflows with pubs, organic grocery stores, global-minded eateries and spiritual venues. He later lost everything in land speculation, the resultant foreclosure forcing Hank and his wife to move out. The castle briefly reopened as a luxury hotel, but its big-band nightclub attracted more patrons than the hotel ever did, and it too failed.
Lit by Victorian gaslights, the interior contains three generations of furnishings, art and fabrics. Viewing is free, but security regulations are in full force. Dating from , sociable Hart House ; www. Eating here is an absolute joy, and shopping is a blast. The streets are full of artists, dreadlocked urban hippies, tattooed punks, potheads, junkies, dealers, bikers, goths, musicians and anarchists.
Shady characters on bicycles whisper their drug menus as they glide by; hooch and Hendrix tinge the air. The further west you go, the more traditional things become, with aromatic bakeries, sidewalk gelaterias and rootsy ristoranti.
Permanent holdings only number about works, curated since , but award-winning temporary exhibitions promote new artists from Nova Scotia to BC. Completed in , the m bridge arcs 40m above the Don River, linking east and west Toronto.
Structural engineer Edmund Burke cunningly included a lower deck for future rail transport in his design. At a peak rate of one every 22 days, around folks decided to call it quits here.
The solution? The park is open to the public on weekends and holidays; cars and pets are prohibited. Summer schedules offer interpretive programs and guided walks, usually with an ecological theme. To get here on public transportation, take any streetcar east along Queen St to Leslie St, then walk m south to the gates.
Alternatively, hire a bike or some in-line skates and follow the Martin Goodman Trail all the way here. Kids follow the farmer around as he does his daily chores, including milking the cows at am. Toronto Islands Once upon a time there were no Toronto Islands, just an immense sandbar stretching 9km into the lake.
On April 13, , a hurricane blasted through the sandbar and created the gap now known as the Eastern Channel. The islands are only accessible by a minute ferry ride Click here.
Squeezed together on a few hundred acres are an antique carousel, goofy golf course, miniature train rides and a sky gondola. Far Enough Farm zoo presents kids with plenty of opportunities to cuddle something furry and step in something sticky. Further south are changing rooms, snack bars, bicycle rentals opposite and a pier striking out into the lake.
Thanks to climate change, winters nowadays are too mild for it. Bus 30B picks up at High Park subway station, then loops through the park on weekends and holidays from mid-June to early September.
The High Park streetcar drops off on the east side of the park. If you exit the park by Colborne Lodge at the south gates, walk down to Lake Shore Blvd W and catch any streetcar back east to downtown. Elizabeth Simcoe named the spot in after Scarborough in Yorkshire, England.
Several parks provide access to clifftops, from where views shoot across Lake Ontario. You can also access the shore at Galloway Rd further east. Unless you have wheels, getting to the bluffs can be a drag, and if you do have a car, parking is limited. One option is to take the subway to Victoria Park, then bus 12 along Kingston Rd. Nature paths start near the bridge and wind back to the secluded Todmorden Mills Wildflower Preserve www.
Along the way you can connect to the Don Valley mountain-bike trails at Cherry St. On the Toronto Islands opposite the south-shore boardwalk and the interconnecting paved paths are car-free zones. You can also cycle or skate around hilly High Park opposite. A recreational cycling club, the Toronto Bicycling Network ; www.
Rental operators include: Community Bicycling Network Map; ; www. Alternatively, hook up with one of the following groups for hardy day hikes: Hike Ontario ; www. These artificial rinks are open daily weather permitting from 10am to 10pm, mid-November to March. Toronto Windsurfing Club Map; ; www. Get off the bus at Commissioners St and walk 10 minutes south.
Beyond the digital stock-market displays, turn left and take the stairs up to the Design Exchange 9; ; www. Shuffle through the basement, diverting right through a zany striped corridor and up some stairs to be spat out onto Temperance St. Pursue the signs to the Eaton Centre 14; Click here , window-shop your way to the north end of the mall then take the escalators up two levels.
Queues can be lengthy; most rides operate rain or shine. Wonderland is a minute drive northwest of downtown Toronto on Hwy Exit at Rutherford Rd, 10 minutes north of Hwy Climb a rock wall, catch a criminal with DNA fingerprinting and race an Olympic bobsled at the excellent, interactive Ontario Science Centre Map; ; www. Over high-tech exhibits and live demonstrations wow the kids and the adults at the back, pretending not to be interested.
Also here is the giant domed Omnimax Cinema. Black Creek Pioneer Village ; www. The village is on the southeast corner of Steeles Ave and Jane St, a minute drive northwest of downtown. A handy online resource for parents is www. Seats 20; bring your own food and drink.
Since the s, its cutting-edge productions have focused on radical new plays with contemporary Canadian themes. Post-performance chats with cast and producers happen regularly.
Sign up for a workshop on erotic photography or Bondage ! Need a comic book fix? Beguiling Map; ; www. Check the website for events.
Shuffle in under the rusty ballroom sign for live bands playing honky-tonk and classic rock. Some of the weirder city festivals include Caribana, with its booty-licious carnival parade; Nuit Blanche a sleepless night of kooky urban art experiences; and the always in-your-face Toronto Buskerfest. Favorites include: New Tribe Map; ; www. Tat-a-Rama Map; ; www. Way Cool Tattoos Map; ; www.
For shorter excursions, just show up and buy a ticket at the quay; reservations are recommended for brunch and dinner cruises. Keep in mind that ferries to the Toronto Islands offer spectacular city views for half the price! Mariposa Cruise Lines Map; , ; www. Sunday brunch and dinner-and-dance cruises, too. Toronto Tours Map; ; www. Bus Toronto bus tours are convenient, but with TTC day passes Click here being so cheap, a do-it-yourself tour makes perfect sense.
Gray Line Tours Map; , ; www. Buy tickets on board. Moose Travel , ; www. ROMBus Map; ; www. Toronto Hippo Tours Map; , ; www. Cycling tours allow you to cover a bit more territory. Try the following companies: A Taste of the World ; www. Reservations recommended. Civitas City Walks ; city. Heritage Toronto ; www. Reservations not required. ROMWalks ; www. Sights On Bikes ; www. Many events are free. Pride Toronto ; www. Late June. National Aboriginal Day ; www. Toronto Downtown Jazz Festival ; www.
Grand Prix of Toronto ; www. Beaches International Jazz Festival ; www. The air show and Labour Day fireworks take the cake. Caribana ; www. Toronto Buskerfest ; www. Films of all lengths and styles are screened in late September, as celebs shimmy between gala events and the shiny new film-fest HQ. Buy tickets well in advance. Virgin Music Festival ; www.
Nuit Blanche ; www. Late September. Readings, discussions, lectures, awards and book signings. Check hotel websites for internet discounts and package deals. Downtown Toronto offers historic hotels, boutique digs and lakefront properties. Budget beds are harder to find, but there are some top-quality youth hostels around town. A handy online resource is www. Booking agencies are another way to save time and money. During Pride Toronto opposite , about a million visitors descend on the city. Click here for drinking and entertainment options.
In Toronto became the first city in North America to legalize same-sex marriage; apply at City Hall Map; ; www. In September , an Ontario Court also recognized the first legal same-sex divorce. Helpful Toronto resources include: Community Centre Map; ; www. These days the hotel insists that guests sign a waiver stipulating there will be no such free double-plays.
Refurbished throughout, it maintains a few old-fashioned features, including a fine lobby and a warm welcome at the hour reception desk. Rates include health club privileges. Strathcona Hotel Map; , ; www. Tour desk and on-site pub, too. Fairmont Royal York Map; , ; www. Rates rise with demand.
The Epic tearooms and the Library Bar are both worth a look. Beds in quad rooms may not cost any more than those in larger dormitories, so ask when making reservations. Pub crawls and quiz nights keep things lighthearted. Cosmopolitan Map; , ; www. Suites have lake views, bedroom-sized showers and sexy design. Staff are serene and courteous, directing you to the Asian fusion restaurant, gym and spa.
Absolute opulence. Holiday Inn on King Map; , ; www. Standard rooms have lake or city views, while the seasonal rooftop pool gazes onto the CN Tower. Children under 12 stay and eat free; service is stern but efficient. Days Inn Toronto Downtown Map; , ; www. Reception at times seems dramatically understaffed, but staff are bubbly with their apologies.
Gay and lesbian travelers welcome. Delta Chelsea Toronto Downtown Map; , ; www. Prices vary with season, day of the week and occupancy. The courtyard is perfect for lounging about. Studios have kitchenettes; management can be a little standoffish. Gloucester Square Inns Map; ; www. Ceiling fans revolve above Persian rugs, McCausland stained glass and Chinese urns.
Samantha Fox once bounced around in the attic suite. Free parking. Comfort Hotel Map; , ; www. Renegades under 18 stay free. Down-to-earth wood-and-brick decor; kids stay free! Holiday Inn Toronto Midtown Map; ; www. The location is also prime, near U of T and the big T. Windsor Arms Map; ; www. The distinguished atmosphere makes you want to whisper! Breakfast includes croissants, bagels, yogurt, fruit and fresh muffins.
Global Guesthouse Map; ; singer inforamp. It fills up quickly, so book well in advance. Castlegate Inn Map; ; www. Their three houses 37 rooms are all within striking distance of U of T and Yorkville. The whole place is furnished and decorated with interesting antiques and collectibles.
The cheaper rooms share a bathroom. Check-in across the road at No Annex Guest House Map; ; www. Wooden floors, handmade bedspreads and crafted copper bowls highlight the spaces.
Casa Loma Inn Map; ; www. Each of the 26 rooms has a TV, fridge, microwave and immaculate bathroom. No breakfast, but Bloor St is just minutes away. Favorite routes include the High Note Trail 8km , which traverses pristine meadows and has stunning views of the blue-green waters of Cheakumus Lake.
Pick up a route map from the visitor center for other trails. Whistler Alpine Guides Bureau ; www. Rafting Tumbling waterfalls, dense forest and a menagerie of local wildlife are some of the visuals you might catch as you lurch along the Elaho or Squamish rivers on an adrenalin-rushing half- or full-day rafting trip.
Whistler River Adventures , ; www. Kokanee Crankworx www. Cornucopia www. Whistler Film Festival www. The visitor center has a handy accommodation reservation service , ; www. Budget HI-Whistler Hostel ; whistler hihostels. Dorms are predictably institutional, but private rooms are also available. Book ahead year-round. The on-site restaurant serves great breakfasts have the salmon eggs Benedict. Fireside Lodge ; www.
Midrange Blackcomb Lodge , ; www. It offers lofts and studios with full kitchens, and a selection of cheaper but very comfortable standard rooms. Alpine Lodge ; www. Crystal Lodge , ; www. Both share excellent proximity to village restaurants and are less than m from the main ski lift.
Or you can just hop in the hot tub and dream about the large buffet breakfast coming your way in the morning. Edgewater Lodge , ; www. Pinnacle Hotel , ; www. Top end Adara Hotel , ; www. The front desk loans iPods. The region hits the international spotlight when it joins Vancouver to host the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in February and March Go to www.
Choose a room overlooking the slopes and you can watch from your balcony as the skiers slide home. Fairmont Chateau Whistler , ; www. The hallways, lobbies and rooms are adorned in rich hues and tastefully furnished with classic west coast elegance. Also recommended: Sundial Boutique Hotel , ; www. Suites have full kitchens, heated bathroom floors and rooftop hot-tub access.
Legends , ; www. Fight your way to the counter and buy as many cookies and muffins as you can eat: smiling while stuffing your face has never been easier. Try a glass of hot sake on a cold winter day. The loungey, sometimes raucous, bar will keep you occupied here until past midnight when you can stagger back to wherever your hotel might be. Save room for dessert: the cheese menu is small but perfectly formed and the Okanagan apple cheesecake will have you licking the glaze off your plate. You can treat your hangover to a late breakfast the next day by coming in for a good-value fry-up.
From its wrought-iron chandeliers to its stone hearth and giant picture windows, you can tell anyone who will listen here all about your daring escapades on the slopes. They might even believe you. The food, including pasta, pizza and great fish and chips, is superior to standard bar fare. Thursday is the best night of the week, attracting locals with indie and funk tunes, but be prepared to line up for weekend entry when everyone within a 25km radius seems to be trying to get in.
MY Place ; www. Motor coach services from Perimeter Tours , ; www. Snowbus , ; www. Alternatively, you can grab a taxi from Resort Cabs ; www. Check the website of the Sunshine Coast Tourism Partnership www. The Sunshine Coast Transit System ; www. Malaspina Coach Lines ; ; www. This service is also handy for traveling up and down the highway between the Sunshine Coast communities.
West of town, Roberts Creek Provincial Park ; www. Exactly what a great hostel should be, Up the Creek Backpackers , ; www. Its large upstairs suite, complete with kitchenette, is popular with families but the lovely Renaissance Room is perfect for some romantic canoodling. Return to beginning of chapter SECHELT pop A useful base for active travelers, with plenty of hiking, biking, kayaking and diving opportunities in the area, Sechelt is the second-largest town on the Sunshine Coast.
For information, drop by the Visitor Centre , ; www. About as far from camping as you can get, each luxurious canvas-walled cabin has a heated rock floor, Jacuzzi tub and a private deck overlooking the bay.
Your first stop should be Pemberton Museum ; Prospect St; admission by donation; 10am-5pm Jun-Sep where you can wander around a village of rescued pioneer shacks and imagine the Gold Rush sweeping through. Next, don your Stetson and saddle up with Adventures on Horseback ; www. An even better way to see the area is from the air.
Head to the Pemberton Soaring Centre , ; www. Tell the pilot you like rollercoasters and see what happens next. Finally, roll back to your cozy bed at the Whistler-style Pemberton Valley Lodge , ; www. Hop aboard a steel-hulled water taxi operated by High Tide Tours ; www. West of downtown, Willingdon Beach City Park is an ideal spot for a waterfront picnic. Or you can hit the water with a kayak from Powell River Sea Kayak , ; www. For a quirky sleepover, the Old Courthouse Inn , ; www. In keeping with the historic theme, the rooms are nicely decorated with antique furnishings.
Nearby, the old Rodmay Heritage Hotel ; www. For an introduction to the island, contact Tourism Vancouver Island , ; www. This was a surprise to anyone who actually came from Britain, since Victoria promulgated a dreamy version of England that never really was: every garden complete with the occasional palm tree was immaculate; every flag pole was adorned with a Union Jack; and every afternoon was spent quaffing tea from bone-china cups.
Thankfully this tired theme-park version of Ye Olde England has been gradually superseded in recent years. Fuelled by an increasingly younger demographic, a quiet revolution has seen lame tourist pubs, eateries and stores transformed into the kind of bright-painted bohemian shops, wood-floored coffee bars and surprisingly innovative restaurants that would make any city proud. Visitor Centre Map; ; www. Parliament Buildings Map; ; www. The BC legislature welcomes history-hugging visitors.
Consider stopping for lunch Click here. This tiny strip of businesses is fronted by an incongruously large Chinatown gate. Consider a guided tour to learn all about days of opium dens and anti-Chinese sentiment.
Check the online calendar of events if you want to rub shoulders with the locals at lectures, presentations and even singles nights aimed at lonely arts fans. The multiturreted Craigdarroch Castle Map; ; www. The elegant, wood-lined stone mansion is dripping with period architecture and antique-packed rooms. Enter the park via Douglas St. Emily Carr House Map; ; www. When you get to Victoria Bug Zoo Map; ; www.
This clutch of scrubbed colonial strongholds is now home to the Maritime Museum of British Columbia Map; ; www. Some operators: Orca Spirit Adventures Map; , ; www. Some operators: Ocean River Sports Map; , ; www. Sports Rent Map; ; www. Cycle Treks Map; , ; www. Gray Line West Map; , ; www. Hidden Dragon Tours Map; , ; www. Victoria SkaFest www. Victoria Jazzfest International www.
Moss Street Paint-In In mid-July artists demonstrate their skills at this popular one-day community event. Symphony Splash www. Victoria Fringe Theatre Festival www. Victoria Cycling Festival www. A great place to meet fellow travelers. Daily guided excursions and tours include city, bike and history treks.
HI Victoria Hostel Map; , ; victoria hihostels. Free weekly city tours are offered. Geometric bedspreads and pastel paintwork color most interiors but the courtyard suites are much larger and suitable for small groups. Ocean Island Suites Map; , ; www. James Bay Inn Map; , ; www. There are some kitchenettes but the downstairs neighborhood bar also serves good pub grub.
Add extra time for the painfully slow elevator to arrive. Queen Victoria Map; , ; www. The rooms here have abandoned the floral bedspreads in favor of a smart business hotel feel. All have new bathrooms and fridges, some have kitchenettes and many overlook Beacon Hill Park from their little balconies. Shamrock Suites Map; , ; www. Call ahead for year-round room discounts. Rosewood Victoria Inn Map; , ; www.
Bring your laptop to the library-like lounge for wireless access or hit the selection of board games. The Heritage House is a restored family home with antiques, fireplaces and private patios. The larger Garden Suites have a contemporary feel and a smattering of Asian design flourishes. Gourmet continental breakfast is included. Swans Suite Hotel Map; , ; www. Most of the rooms are spacious loft suites where you climb upstairs to bed in a gabled nook, and each is decorated with a comfy combination of wood beams, rustic chic furniture and deep leather sofas.
Oswego Hotel Map; , ; www. Cleverly, the smaller studio rooms have space-saving high-end Murphy beds. Fairmont Empress Hotel Map; , ; www. Check out the handmade candies on display near the entrance and pick up some marzipan teeth for the road. Hulking sandwiches of the melt-in-your-mouth pulled pork variety beef brisket and smoked chicken variations are also offered dominate the simple menu and you can wash that down with a pail of homemade ice tea.
Expect lunchtime queues better to arrive early or late and consider perking up your order with a side of succulent cornbread or a fried-banana-and-peanut-butter sandwich dessert. Signature sarnies feature roast beef or pastrami but the bulging vegetarian sandwich is also popular. Soups, wraps and sandwiches dominate the menu and there are plenty of vegetarian-friendly options. Heaping Belgian waffles are served with homemade cream cheese, and those who come for dinner can choose from a medley of international comfort foods, from calamari to pierogies.
Even meat-eaters have been known to swoon here, as they tuck into surprisingly tasty spring rolls, dim sum and potstickers. Combo meals are the best option, since they offer an array of different flavors.
Carnivores will be just as happy here, though, with hearty savory dishes like shitake-tofu potstickers and an array of dense fruit smoothies. Weekend brunch is popular and heavily patronized by hung-over students moaning quietly from the corners.
The excellent beer selection includes Phillips and Lighthouse craft brews. Try the salmon-and-cream-cheese bagel melt at ReBar above. Save room for dessert: a frightening array of giant cheesecakes. With a great wine menu, this spot invites adventurous foodies. Locally sourced produce is de rigueur, so the menu constantly changes to reflect seasonal highlights like figs, salmonberries and heirloom tomatoes.
We recommend the lamb shank, served with mustard-creamed root vegetables and braised chard. Unassuming from the outside, the ever-changing dishes might range from a hearty squash soup with butter-fried sage to a mouth-melting sablefish, served with rapini and poached eggs. Savvy diners drop by on Saturdays, when a creative five-course tasting menu hits the blackboard.
Extensive first-hand research was undertaken for these reviews. Summer drinkers often enjoy the lighter Honey Blonde Ale, while those with darker palates should make for the Nut Brown. Save room for dinner: the menu of seasonal, locally-sourced dishes is superior to most pubs and includes some excellent seafood. Irish Times Map; ; Government St; 11am-1am Colonizing a former downtown bank building, this lively Celtic bar is a cut above standard Irish pubs.
The interior is a pleasing fusion of high ceilings and dark wood finishes and the draft selection is a buffet of classics from Ireland, France and Belgium. Friday is also popular and there are also regular live acts. The Friday and Saturday night dance parties here are the main attraction. The latter is also home of the Victoria Symphony ; www. Shopping While Government St is a magnet for souvenir shoppers, those looking for more worthwhile purchases should head to the Johnson St stretch between Store and Government.
Tops and skirts with insect prints are hot items, but there are also lots of cute handbags, socks and brooches to tempt your credit card. You can pick up all manner of tea paraphernalia here or sidle up to the tasting bar to quaff some adventurous brews. A minitheatre walks you through the process, a tasting bar serves those who like to quaff before buying and an impressive selection of vintages is offered for sale.
Flavors range from peppermint to chocolate nut. Government St Public Market ; Government St; Sun May-Sep An eclectic mix of vendors and performers transform this stretch at the block of Government St into a bustling pedestrianized street market on summer Sundays. Air Canada Jazz , ; www. Both airlines offer connections across Canada. Harbour Air Seaplanes , ; www. Similar West Coast Air , ; www.
Regular services also arrive from the Southern Gulf Islands. Victoria Clipper , ; www. Black Ball Transport ; www. Pick up a copy of the Peninsula Times for local stories and happenings or drop by the Saanich Peninsula Visitor Centre ; Patricia Bay Hwy; ampm Jun-Sep near Sidney for tips and insights on the area. Drop by the Visitor Centre ; www. The Marine Ecology Centre ; www.
A floating barge in the marina on our visit, it was scheduled to move to swanky new premises in the Sidney Pier Hotel. You can check out the sea critters for yourself at Sidney Spit. Accessed via a short ferry ride ; www. Dominating the waterfront, the new Sidney Pier Hotel and Spa , ; www.
Victoria Regional Transit ; www. More than a century later, the cement operation is dust but the huge, elaborately manicured Butchart Gardens , ; www. Summer is crowded with the usual tour bus hordes but daily afternoon and evening music performances and Saturday-night fireworks July and August make it all worthwhile.
Yuletide-loving December visitors are treated to thousands of fairy lights draped among the wintering plants. Perched atop Observatory Hill, this government facility houses the Plaskett Telescope in use since along with several hands-on exhibits and a miniplanetarium for the astronomically inclined.
Starry-eyed visitors can crash the Star Party on Friday or Saturday evenings May to October , when the astronomers chill out, show off their equipment and tackle thorny themes from asteroids to zero gravity. Hungry bald eagles are attracted to the fish and birdwatchers come ready with their cameras. Drop by the Sooke Region Visitor Centre , ; www. This route goes a step further by getting cyclists off the highways and into some usually unseen backcountry.
Getting on and off the trails is easy since bus lines along both routes are bike-rack equipped. You can download free maps and guides for both these routes from the Capital Regional District ; www. With surf crashing against the bluffs and a dense canopy of Douglas fir trees, it offers short strolls to the beach as well as a tough 10km coastal trail.
Sooke is also the end of the line for the popular Galloping Goose cycling trail see boxed text. Rent a bike from Sooke Cycle ; www. Paintings, sculptures and carved wood line its interiors. Be aware that some sections are often muddy and difficult to hike and bear sightings are not uncommon.
The most popular is the family-friendly China Beach Campground , ; www. Booking is also required on the West Coast Trail Express , ; www. An ideal place to wind down after a long hike, its facilities include barbecues and hot tubs. Hikers are often found lolling around outside on the picnic tables here. Contact Tourism Cowichan , ; www. Visit the Visitor Centre , ; www. Must-scoffs here include giant vegetable pakoras and the kind of cinnamon-infused rice that addictions are made of.
The nearby South Shore Motel , ; www. After fuelling up, duck into the Maritime Centre ; www. Continue to the Caycus River Bridge and, just south of the bridge, turn right and follow Rosander Main for 29km to the park.
Instead of submitting to a slow death, town officials commissioned a giant wall mural depicting local history. People took notice, 34 more murals and 13 sculptures were ordered, and a new tourism industry was born. Check the Visitor Centre ; www. Favorite stops include Cherry Point Vineyards ; www. For more information on the wineries of this area and across Vancouver Island, check www.
In the evening, the surprisingly large Chemainus Theatre , ; www. Rooms are slick and comfortable and many include kitchens.
Its old Edwardian banks and trading houses are now occupied by artsy shops and coffee bars. Drop by the Visitor Centre , ; www. Downhill from the town hub, Transfer Beach Park attracts swimmers and picnickers and has summertime live music in its large amphitheater.
You can also hit the water here with the help of Sealegs Kayaking Adventures , ; www. With its own ferry service from the mainland, the city is a handy hub for exploring up-island. Nicol St leads south to Hwy 1 and the Duke Point ferry terminal. Heading north, Terminal Ave forks: the right fork becomes Stewart Ave Hwy 1 , leading to the Departure Bay ferry terminal, while the left fork becomes Hwy 19A Island Hwy and is the main up-island route.
Downtown Information Centre ; www. Bring a picnic and check out the birds hanging around the lagoon, take a short hike through the gnarly Garry oak forest or give the climbing wall your best shot.
Newcastle Island Marine Provincial Park ; www. Walks or hikes range from 1km strolls to a 7. Access is via a minute ferry , ; www.
Overlooking downtown, the colorful Nanaimo District Museum ; www. There are regular temporary exhibitions to keep the line-up fresh. A swanky new museum building in the city center was scheduled to open soon after our visit.
This landmark fortified tower only fired occasional cannons to simmer down regional ruckuses. Wild Play Element Parks , ; www. For scuba fans, the coastline off Nanaimo offers some great dives and the folk at Ocean Explorers Diving , ; www. Sleeping Painted Turtle Guesthouse , ; www. Hardwood floors and IKEAesque furnishings abound while facilities range from a large and welcoming kitchen to a laundry room and en-suite showers.
You can book a wide range of local activities through the front desk. Buccaneer Inn , ; www. The neat and tidy approach is carried over into the maritime-themed rooms, many with kitchenettes. It has two lovely rooms, combining antique and contemporary chintzy flourishes. Dorchester Hotel , ; www. Inn on Long Lake , ; www.
The large rooms, each with a balcony, have plenty of amenities and some have kitchenettes. It has a sauna, a fitness center and lake-bound canoes to keep you occupied, along with free continental breakfast. The food is the main attraction, though. Drop by on Saturday and Sunday for live lunchtime music. The patio is a magnet on languid sunny days. The menu rests on the kind of wraps, burgers and sandwiches that are a cut above standard diner fare and there are some tempting small-plate options for those who want to snack or share.
The locally sourced ingredients mean ever-changing specials but the favorite on our visit was Pacific halibut with Dungeness crab potato salad. In late July, the four days of marine-themed shenanigans include a street fair, a parade and a giant fireworks extravaganza, but the main event remains the big race where hundreds of salty sea dogs jump into customized bath-sized crafts and embark on a grueling 58km course. Speedboat engines are de rigueur for the minute sprint, with thousands of spectators lining the bay for the spectacular finish.
A dip in the tub will never seem the same again. The menu is also recommended and is a cut above standard pub grub. In contrast, the Port Theatre ; www. Frequent West Coast Air , ; www. BUS Greyhound Canada ; www. Getting Around Downtown Nanaimo around the harbor is highly walkable, but after that the city spreads out and a car or strong bike legs are required.
Be aware that taxis are expensive here. Nanaimo Regional Transit ; www. Bus 2 goes to the Departure Bay ferry terminal. No city buses run to Duke Point. For cabs, call AC Taxi Most visitors spend time pointing at the sky here in summer: a herd of goats lives on the roof of the main building. World Parrot Refuge ; www. This excellent educational facility preaches the mantra that parrots are not pets. Pick up your earplugs at reception and stroll among the enclosures, each alive with recovering and very noisy birds.
It has an excellent walk-through display on west coast animals and their habitats. Dedicated to treating sick or injured animals brought to its doors, the facility also has active rehabilitation programs for eagles and black bear.
Horne Lake Caves Provincial Park ; www. Even better are the three circular yurts, complete with baths, kitchens, double beds and flat-screen TVs. The rest of the campground has showers, laundry and a playground. Free Spirit Spheres ; www. Like sleeping in a small boat cabin, the cozy, wood-lined interiors include cupboards, water coolers and the larger of the two Eryn has a microwave oven.
Blue Willow Guest House ; www. The two rooms and one self-contained suite are lined with antiques and each is extremely homely. Tigh-Na-Mara Resort , ; www. Lodge rooms, cottages and condos are available, each with a rustic-chic ambiance.
Drop by for some fortifying pub grub and a couple of beers or head into the slightly more upscale restaurant where fish, steak and pasta dishes jostle for menu attention. A hearty weekend brunch is also available. The same buses, with similar times and rates, serve Qualicum Beach. The daily VIA Rail ; www. The same train, with similar times and rates, also serves Qualicum Beach. But the double whammy of aboriginal and pioneer heritage plus easy access to some truly outstanding natural wilderness makes this an ideal spot for an off-the-beaten-path visit.
For more information, check in with the Alberni Valley Visitor Centre ; www. Try hugging that. A one-stop shop for active types, Batstar Adventure Tours , ; www. Choo Kwa Ventures , ; www.
You can help paddle if you want or just sit back and listen to the ancient stories and songs from the local Hupacasath people. The breakfasts are correspondingly wholesome and the two rooms have a charming, rustic feel.
Hummingbird Guesthouse , ; hummingbirdguesthouse. Its funky orange-and-blue interior provides a casual atmosphere indoors, or you can head to the patio for a side dish of panoramic inlet views. First-timers should drop by the Pacific Rim Visitor Centre ; www. Wide sandy beaches, untamed surf, lots of beachcombing nooks and a living museum of old-growth rainforest are the main reasons for the summer tourist clamor. Safety precautions apply on all trails in the region: tread carefully over slippery surfaces and never turn your back on the mischievous surf.
Long Beach Great scenery along the sandy shore easy. Rainforest Trail Two interpretive loops through old-growth forest 1km; moderate. Schooner Trail Through old and second-growth forests with beach access 1km; moderate. Shorepine Bog Loops around a moss-layered bog m; easy and wheelchair-accessible.
South Beach Through forest to a pebble beach m; easy to moderate. Spruce Fringe Trail Loop trail featuring hardy Sitka spruce 1. Wickaninnish Trail Shoreline and forest trail 2. Extremely popular in summer book ahead , its tent sites are located on a forested terrace, with trail access to the beach. Expect fairly basic facilities: the faucets are cold but the toilets are flush. Compasses are required for navigating here, unless you fancy paddling to Hawaii.
From there, popular paddle-to points include the recommended Gibraltar Island, a one-hour kayak away. It has a sheltered campground and many explorable beaches. Willis Island 90 minutes from Sechart is also popular. It has a campground and, at low tide, you can stroll to some of the nearby islands. Staff patrols the region to keep an eye on things and collect additional fees if you decide to stay longer. Alternatively, Broken Island Adventures , ; www. Winding between the West Coast Trail information centers at Pachena Bay ; 9am-5pm May-Sep , near Bamfield on the north end, and Gordon River ; 9am-5pm May-Sep , near Port Renfrew to the south, most trekkers take between five and eight days to complete the full route.
Since the southern section is more difficult, many hikers prefer to ease themselves in from the northern end. The trail is only accessible from May to September and there is a limit of 26 overnight backpackers starting from each end each day.
Hikers can camp at any of the designated sites along the route, most of which have solar-composting outhouses. Overnight hikers who only tackle this end of the trail can leave from Nitinat Lake. Day hikers are allowed on the trail from each end, but need a free day-use permit, available from the registration centers.
West Coast Trail Express , ; www. A short drive south of town, the Visitor Centre ; www. Sights Check out what coastal temperate rainforests are all about by exploring the flora and fauna at the Tofino Botanical Gardens ; www. Admission and programs are free but donations are appreciated and you can also support the work here by buying a couple of their excellent trail guides. Tranquility-minded trekkers travel here by Zodiac boat or seaplane, watching for whales and other sea critters en route.
From the boat landing, 2km of boardwalks lead to a series of natural hot pools. Visible through the mist and accessible via kayak or tour boat from the Tofino waterfront, Meares Island is home to the Big Tree Trail, a m boardwalk through old-growth forest that includes a stunning year-old red cedar. Situated on remote Flores Island and accessed by tour boat or kayak, Ahousat is the mystical location of the spectacular Wild Side Heritage Trail, a moderately difficult path that traverses 10km of forests, beaches and headlands between Ahousat and Cow Bay.
A popular destination for kayakers, camping of the no-facilities variety is allowed here. Pacific Surf School , ; www. The surf school Surf Sister , ; www.
Remote Passages , ; www. Tofino Sea Kayaking Co , ; www. Tours Adventures Pacific , ; www. Tla-ook Cultural Adventures , ; www. Tofino Air , ; www. Ocean Outfitters , ; www. Sleeping Clayoquot Field Station ; www. A great sleepover for nature-lovers, it has a natural history library and regular speakers and events.
Dolphin Motel ; www. A short walk from Chesterman Beach, it has a barbecue area with picnic tables and a couple of self-catering units with full kitchens. Tofino Inlet Cottages , ; www. Gull Cottage ; www. Rates include breakfast, dinner and canoe use.
Pacific Sands Beach Resort , ; www. Great for groups, these huge timber-framed houses open directly onto the beach and include kitchens, stone fireplaces, slate and wood floors and ocean-view bedrooms with private decks. Built on pillars to preserve rainforest root systems, they also have energy-efficient heating systems.
Wickaninnish Inn , ; www. Embodying nature with recycled old-growth furniture, natural stone tiles and the atmosphere of a place grown rather than constructed, the sumptuous guest rooms have push-button gas fireplaces, two-person hot tubs and private balconies.
Pampering has rarely felt better. Head upstairs to the swish new lounge for cocktails and great views across the inlet. Our menu favorite here is the shrimp and crab dumplings. Now affiliated with Greyhound Canada you can book via the www. The route runs daily year-round and twice daily from mid-March to mid-November.
Canada day vancouver islandвЂ™s wilderness first aide. Paperzz.com
This 2-day program represents the minimum standard of training for the outdoor leader, instructor, guide or recreational adventurer. It provides a practical perspective on dealing with common wilderness injuries through to life threatening situations. The program is divided between classroom and practical skills, utilizing scenarios and simulations to enhance learning and develop effective interventions and competent patient care.
There is no recertification for this introductory program. Successful participants may chose to take this course every three years or they may chose to upgrade to the Advanced Wilderness First Aid level of training by taking an additional 2 day course within a year of the completion of this program.
This course is for individuals who would like to begin thinking about the challenges when is hours or days away. Be careful as this course just might be a gateway into a lifelong desire to know more about the human body and what can go suddenly wrong. Participants will gain an understanding of decision-making in remote environments. Patients will learn to connect the mechanism of injury with potential outcomes for the trauma patient. Participants will learn to use resources effectively should evacuation be necessary.
If you have a location or would like to bring a course to your town, let us know and we can put one together. Course Information Course length: 16 hours View Our Upcoming Courses This Course is For This course is for individuals who would like to begin thinking about the challenges when is hours or days away. What You Will Gain Participants will gain an understanding of decision-making in remote environments.
What’s Included Training materials Certification. Weekend Wilderness First Aid course in Toronto. Location TBD. Register Now. Wilderness First Aid Course Toronto. We do custom training and courses! Contact Us.
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Wilderness and remote environments require specialized skills, equipment and training. Whether you are an outdoor recreation enthusiast, live or work in a wilderness or remote setting, or work as a professional rescuer — Red Cross offers specialized training to meet your needs.
Our newly updated program includes:. Suitable for individuals who live or work in non-urban, remote or wilderness workplaces or communities. Rescuers who specialize in decision-making, evacuation, and transport in a remote or wilderness setting.
Suitable for those who work in remote emergency services, remote worksites, ski patrol, search and rescue etc. Learn the essential first aid skills and training required for planning, preventing injury, promoting safety, and responding to emergencies in remote and wilderness environments. To find a course in your area visit myrc.
Contact us at or myrcsupport redcross. You can help when help is most needed. Give to the Red Cross. Learning activities and scenarios with real-life situations specifically designed for wilderness and remote environments.
Expanded course offerings, including a brand-new Wilderness First Responder level providing advanced first aid and CPR skills, leadership and rescue decision-making skills for professional rescuers who work and respond to emergencies in remote or wilderness settings.
Significant opportunities for hands-on learning with a significant portion of the courses taught in an outdoor setting so participants get the most effective learning experience possible. We offer three levels of training designed to meet your needs. Remote First Aid – 20 hours. Audience: Suitable for individuals who live or work in non-urban, remote or wilderness workplaces or communities. Environment: Remote workplaces or communities 2 or more hours from organized health care Wilderness less than 3 hours from organized health care.
Care: Participants learn skills and strategies for providing care in a remote setting for up to 24 hours. Key Learning Concepts: Planning, prevention, and situational awareness Wound care Environmental emergencies. Environment: Wilderness 3 or more hours from organized health care Challenging environments with varied risk levels.
Care: Participants learn skills and strategies for providing extended care overnight to a few days. Key Learning Concepts: Prevention; health and wellness of the group Leadership skills Assessment Extended care and decision-making around additional supports required.
Audience: Rescuers who specialize in decision-making, evacuation, and transport in a remote or wilderness setting. Environment: Challenging environments with varied terrain and risk levels They are responding as part of a designated team in a targeted capacity where survival may be compromised. Key Learning Concepts: Leadership skills Expectation to provide care Use of professional tool kit and resources Extrication and rescue decision- making.
exuper: Canada (part-1) – We offer three levels of training designed to meet your needs.
AdBrowse & discover thousands of brands. Read customer reviews & find best sellers. Enjoy low prices on earth’s biggest selection of books, electronics, home, apparel & has been visited by 1M+ users in the past month. We offer three levels of training designed to meet your needs. Remote First Aid – 20 hours. Wilderness First Aid – 40 hours. Wilderness First Responder – 80 hours. Learn the essential . Wilderness and remote environments require specialized skills, equipment and training. The Canadian Red Cross Wilderness First Aid (formerly Advanced Wilderness & Remote First Aid) .