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Since the s a causal relation between water hardness and cardiovascular diseases CVD in humans has been hypothesized. In order to evaluate the influence of calcium and magnesium, the minerals responsible for the hardness of drinking water , on human health, a review of all the articles published on the subject from up to today has been carried out. Many but not all geographic correlation studies showed an inverse association between water hardness and mortality for CVD.
Most case-control and one cohort studies showed an inverse relation, statistically significant, between mortality from CVD and water levels of magnesium, but not calcium. This inverse association is supported by clinical and experimental findings and is biologically plausible and in line with Hill’s criteria for a cause-effect relationship.
Diminished disease progression rate in a chronic kidney disease population following the replacement of dietary water source with quality drinking water : A pilot study. The potential of drinking water as a medium for the nephrotoxic agents in the affected subjects has been comprehensively discoursed in the recent past.
The present study was aimed to assess the effect of replacing the habitual drinking water on the kidney function of CKDu patients residing in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka: METHODS: An interventional study was carried out to assess the disease progression rate of a CKDu population whose habitual drinking water was replaced by bottled spring water certified by Sri Lanka Standard SLS for a period of 18 month along with a population of CKDu patients who continued with their usual drinking water.
Kidney function of subjects in both groups were monitored in terms of blood pressure, serum creatinine, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, hemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein at 6 months intervals during the intervention and follow up periods.
Diminished disease progression rate was observed in CKDu patients in the intervention group when compared with the non- intervention group based on serum creatinine, Hb, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary protein levels. Extensive interventional studies are required to generalize effect of drinking water on CKDu population. The habitual drinking water is likely to be a contributory factor towards the progression of the disease.
Mycobacterium avium complex–the role of potable water in disease transmission. Mycobacterium avium complex MAC is a group of opportunistic pathogens of major public health concern. It is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease dependent on subspecies, route of infection and patients pre-existing conditions. Presently, there is limited research on the incidence of MAC infection that considers both pulmonary and other clinical manifestations.
MAC has been isolated from various terrestrial and aquatic environments including natural waters , engineered water systems and soils. Identifying the specific environmental sources responsible for human infection is essential in minimizing disease prevalence.
This paper reviews current literature and case studies regarding the wide spectrum of disease caused by MAC and the role of potable water in disease transmission.
Potable water was recognized as a putative pathway for MAC infection. Contaminated potable water sources associated with human infection included warm water distribution systems, showers, faucets, household drinking water , swimming pools and hot tub spas. MAC can maintain long-term contamination of potable water sources through its high resistance to disinfectants, association with biofilms and intracellular parasitism of free-living protozoa. Further research is required to investigate the efficiency of water treatment processes against MAC and into construction and maintenance of warm water distribution systems and the role they play in MAC proliferation.
Columnaris as a disease of cold- water fishes. A natural outbreak of columnaris disease among wild adult and hatchery-reared fingerling salmon in the State of Washington is described.
The disease is identified by the recovery of the causative organism, Bacillus columnaris Davis, which may be readily identified by its characteristic action in forming columns on the surfaces of infected material held in a water mount on a microscope slide.
The gross lesions vary in appearance according to the particular organ affected but are formed, essentially, by the progressive necrosis and disintegration of the tissues. The tissues primarily affected are skin, body musculature, and the gills. Cultivation of the causative organism in tryptone solutions is recorded. Between these temperature thresholds, the degree and severity of the infection is markedly influenced by factors adverse to the host. No effective control measures have been found.
Human- and veterinary important parasites of the subkingdom of protozoans and helminths infect humans and animals by ingestion of parasites in contaminated water. The parasites are excreted from the body of infected humans, livestock, zoo animals, companion animals or wild animals in the feces. Recreational waters , agricultural practices and wild animals serve as vehicles of transmission of the parasites in the water supplies.
The following topics are addressed: a the life cycles of parasitic diseases -causing agents with proven or potential transmission via water b the development and the current research status of the analytical techniques for the detection of parasitic diseases -causing agents from water c the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water supplies and in treated water d the possible water sources and transmission ways of the parasites into the water supplies e the behaviour and the possibilities for the removal or elimination of the parasites by water treatment.
Genetic evaluation of Addison’s disease in the Portuguese Water Dog. Background Addison’s disease , also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. Addison’s is presumed to be an autoimmune mediated hereditary defect but the mode of inheritance remains unclear.
In particular, the heritability and mode of inheritance have not been defined for the Portuguese Water Dog although Addison’s is known to be prevalent in the breed. Results The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison’s disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0. Further, the complex segregation analysis provides suggestive evidence that Addison’s disease in the Portuguese Water Dog is inherited under the control of a single, autosomal recessive locus.
Conclusion The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison’s disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison’s.
Though the confirmation of Addison’s disease as an autosomal recessive disorder must wait until the gene is identified, breeders of these dogs may wish to keep the present findings in mind as they plan their breeding programs to select against producing affected dogs. Addison’s disease , also known as hypoadrenocorticism, has been reported in many individual dogs, although some breeds exhibit a greater incidence than the population as a whole. The analyses present clear evidence that establishes Addison’s disease as an inherited disorder in the Portuguese Water Dog with an estimate of heritability of 0.
The high heritability and mode of inheritance of Addison’s disease in the Portuguese Water Dog should enable the detection of segregating markers in a genome-wide scan and the identification of a locus linked to Addison’s. Water -based vs. To compare the efficacy of two physiotherapy protocols water -based vs. A single blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Inpatient Rehabilitative Department. A total of 30 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease.
Changes in the degree of cervical and dorsal flexion and in the angle of lateral inclination of the trunk evaluated by means of a posturographic system were used as primary outcomes.
All outcomes were assessed at baseline, at the end of training and eight weeks after treatment. Patients were always tested at the time of their optimal antiparkinsonian medication ‘on’ phase. After the treatment, only Parkinson’s disease subjects randomized to water -based treatment showed a significant improvement of trunk posture with a significant reduction of cervical flexion water -based group: Both groups presented significant improvements in the secondary clinical outcomes without between-group differences.
Our results show that water -based physiotherapy was effective for improving postural deformities in patients with Parkinson’s disease.
When invited, EPA has supplied technical assistance and advice on traking causative events, evaluation of drinking water problems Safety of community drinking- water and outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease : Israel, Waterborne disease remains a major public health problem in many countries.
We report findings on nearly three decades of waterborne disease in Israel and the part these diseases play in the total national burden of enteric disease. During the s and s, Israel’s community water supplies were frequently of poor quality according to the microbiological standards at that time, and the country experienced many outbreaks of waterborne enteric disease. New regulations raised water quality standards and made chlorination of community water supplies mandatory, as well as imposing more stringent guidelines on maintaining water sources and distribution systems for both surface water and groundwater.
This was followed by improved compliance and water quality, and a marked decline in the number of outbreaks of waterborne disease ; no outbreaks were detected between and The incidence of waterborne salmonellosis, shigellosis, and typhoid declined markedly as proportions of the total burden of these diseases , but peaked during the time in which there were frequent outbreaks of waterborne disease Long-term trends in the total incidence of reported infectious enteric diseases from all sources, including typhoid, shigellosis, and viral hepatitis all types declined, while the total incidence of salmonellosis increased.
Mandatory chlorination has had an important impact on improving water quality, in reducing outbreaks of waterborne disease in Israel, and reducing the total burden of enteric disease in the country.
For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease -causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin A Root water uptake model to compensate disease stress in citrus trees. Plant root water uptake RWU controls a number of hydrologic fluxes in simulating unsaturated flow and transport processes.
Variable saturated models that simulate soil- water -plant interactions within the rizhosphere do not account for the health of the tree. This makes them difficult to analyse RWU patterns for diseased trees. Improper irrigation management activities on diseased Phytopthora spp. This research aims at developing a quantitative RWU model that accounts for the reduction in water stress as a function of plant disease level hereafter called as disease stress. A total of four research plots with varying disease severity were considered for our field experimentation.
A three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography ERT was performed to understand spatio-temporal distribution in soil moisture following irrigation. Evaporation and transpiration were monitored daily using micro lysimeter and sap flow meters respectively. Disease intensity was quantified on 0 to 9 scale using pathological analysis on soil samples. Pedo-physocal and pedo-electric relations were established under controlled laboratory conditions.
A non-linear disease stress response function for citrus trees was derived considering phonological, hydrological, and pathological parameters. Results of numerical simulations conclude that the propagation of error in RWU estimates by ignoring the health condition of the tree is significant. The developed disease stress function was then validated in the presence of deficit water and nutrient stress conditions.
Results of numerical analysis showed a good agreement with experimental data, corroborating the need for alternate management practices for disease citrus trees. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water , disease prevalence and associated economic losses.
Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare.
Therefore, using domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing in wastewater and freshwater and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes , buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease FMD and tick infestation.
Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, and USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess.
It is recognized that the properties of liquid water can be markedly different from those of bulk one when it is in contact with hydrophobic surfaces or is confined in nano-environments. Because our knowledge regarding water structure on the molecular level of dynamic equilibrium within a picosecond time scale is far from completeness all of water ‘s conventionally known properties are based on inert “bulk liquid water ” with a tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded structure.
Actually, the strength of water ‘s hydrogen bonds HBs decides its properties and activities. In this review, an innovative idea on preparation of metastable plasmon-activated water PAW with intrinsically reduced HBs, by letting deionized DI water flow through gold-supported nanoparticles AuNPs under resonant illumination at room temperature, is reported.
Compared to DI water , the created stable PAW can scavenge free hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radicals and effectively reduce NO release from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cells. Moreover, PAW can dramatically induce a major antioxidative Nrf2 gene in human gingival fibroblasts. This further confirms its cellular antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.
In addition, innovatively therapeutic strategy of daily drinking PAW on inflammatory-related diseases based on animal disease models is demonstrated, examples being chronic kidney disease CKD , chronic sleep deprivation CSD , and lung cancer. Epidemiology of infectious diseases transmitted by drinking water in developed countries.
Research on the epidemiology of infectious diseases attributable to drinking water , common in the US during the past 20 years at least, is not yet really widespread in France. The role played by water in the transmission of certain infectious agents was important in European countries during past centuries but at present the incidence of waterborne diseases can be considered as very low. The absence of well-established data is due to the difficulty in reporting correctly a few minor outbreaks in a situation of very low endemicity.
After a survey of the reported outbreaks, this paper deals with risk assessment of waterborne diseases in developed countries as well as special problems linked with proving transmission via water and with the nature of the infectious agents, and the development of monitoring methods for increasing our knowledge of this epidemiology. Water -soluble dietary fibers and cardiovascular disease. One well-established way to reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease CVD is to lower serum LDL cholesterol levels by reducing saturated fat intake.
However, the importance of other dietary approaches, such as increasing the intake of water -soluble dietary fibers is increasingly recognized. Well-controlled intervention studies have now shown that four major water -soluble fiber types-beta-glucan, psyllium, pectin and guar gum-effectively lower serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL cholesterol or triacylglycerol concentrations.
It is estimated that for each additional gram of water -soluble fiber in the diet serum total and LDL cholesterol concentrations decrease by Despite large differences in molecular structure, no major differences existed between the different types of water -soluble fiber, suggesting a common underlying mechanism. In this respect, it is most likely that water -soluble fibers lower the re absorption of in particular bile acids.
As a result hepatic conversion of cholesterol into bile acids increases, which will ultimately lead to increased LDL uptake by the liver. Additionally, epidemiological studies suggest that a diet high in water -soluble fiber is inversely associated with the risk of CVD. These findings underlie current dietary recommendations to increase water -soluble fiber intake.
On behalf of the World Health Organization WHO , I have undertaken a series of literature-based investigations examining the global burden of disease related to a number of environmental risk factors associated with drinking water.
In this article I outline the investigation of drinking- water nitrate concentration and methemoglobinemia. No exposure—response relationship, however, could be identified that related drinking- water nitrate level to methemoglobinemia.
Indeed, although it has previously been accepted that consumption of drinking water high in nitrates causes methemoglobinemia in infants, it appears now that nitrate may be one of a number of co-factors that play a sometimes complex role in causing the disease.
I conclude that, given the apparently low incidence of possible water -related methemoglobinemia, the complex nature of the role of nitrates, and that of individual behavior, it is currently inappropriate to attempt to link illness rates with drinking- water nitrate levels. Control of infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis virus disease by elevating the water temperature.
Studies were performed to determine if increasing water temperatures could control infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus IHN disease in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. The disease did not recur after the elevated temperature treatment, but the fish would still contract the disease if they were reinfected. Reasons for the protecting action are discussed.
Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed.
The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan. Deteriorating water treatment facilities and distribution systems pose a significant public health threat, particularly in republics of the former Soviet Union. Interventions to decrease the disease burden associated with these water systems range from upgrading distribution networks to installing reverse osmosis technology.
To provide insight into this decision process, we conducted a randomized intervention study to provide epidemiologic data for water policy decisions in Nukus, Uzbekistan, where drinking water quality is suboptimal. We interviewed residents of households, with and without access to municipal piped water. Residents of 62 households without piped water were trained to chlorinate their drinking water at home in a narrow-necked water container with a spout.
All study subjects individuals were monitored biweekly for self-reported diarrheal illness over a period of 9. The home chlorination intervention group had the lowest diarrheal rate Compared with the two groups that did not receive the intervention this rate was one-sixth that of the group with no piped water Forty-two percent of these municipal users reported that water pressure had been intermittent within the previous two days. The dramatic reduction in diarrheal rates in the home-chlorination intervention group indicates that a large proportion of diarrheal diseases in Nukus are water -borne.
The home-chlorination group had less diarrhea than the group with piped water , implicating the distribution system as a source of disease transmission. Taken together, these. Environmental burden of diarrhoeal diseases due to unsafe water supply and poor sanitation coverage in Nepal. Unsafe water and poor sanitation are major contributing factors of diarrhoea. Most of the water supply systems in urban and rural area of Nepal do not have basic water treatment facilities.
This has resulted in frequent reports of fecal contamination in drinking water and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The purpose of this study was to find out the burden of diarrhoeal diseases at different scenario of water supply system and sanitation status in Nepalese context. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four different districts of Nepal analyzing six different scenarios based on availability of water supply and sanitation status. Village Development Committees VDCs and community selection was made purposively and households, 60 from each scenario were selected conveniently to achieve the required number.
Within the selected household, the head of the household or any member above 18 years of age was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Observation was done for toilet and water sources besides questionnaire method. Incidence of diarrhoea per population was found to be the highest in scenario-IV Spring without toilet with Most of the households didn’t treat water before drinking. The greater risk of acquiring diarrhoeal disease and higher burden of disease in situation of unprotected water source and absence of toilet shows that these are still important contributing factors for diarrhoeal disease in Nepal.
Use of sanitary toilets and protected water source are the important measures for diarrhoeal disease prevention in Nepal. Narrow band imaging combined with water immersion technique in the diagnosis of celiac disease.
The “multiple-biopsy” approach both in duodenum and bulb is the best strategy to confirm the diagnosis of celiac disease ; however, this increases the invasiveness of the procedure itself and is time-consuming. To evaluate the diagnostic yield of a single biopsy guided by narrow-band imaging combined with water immersion technique in paediatric patients.
The experimental protocol was highly timesaving compared to the standard protocol. Published by Elsevier Ltd. We aimed to investigate the amounts of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon TOC in two drinking water sources and their relationship with some gastrointestinal diseases. This cross-sectional study was conducted in in Iran.
This water is used for drinking as well as for industrial and agricultural consumption. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations of water samples were analyzed using DR spectrophotometer. The information of patients was collected from the records of the main referral hospital of the region for gastrointestinal diseases. In both areas under study, the mean water nitrate and nitrite concentrations were higher in July than in other months.
The mean TOC concentrations in areas 1 and 2 were 2. Although we did not document significant association of nitrite, nitrate, and TOC content of water with gastrointestinal diseases , it should be considered that such health hazards may develop over time, and the quality of water content should be controlled to prevent different diseases.
Association of nitrate, nitrite, and total organic carbon TOC in drinking water and gastrointestinal disease. Despite advancements in water management and sanitation, waterborne disease outbreaks continue to occur in the United States. Advances in water management and sanitation have substantially reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U. For , 32 drinking water -associated outbreaks were reported, accounting for at least cases of illness, hospitalizations, and 14 deaths.
Continued vigilance by public health, regulatory, and industry professionals to identify and correct deficiencies associated with building plumbing systems and groundwater systems could prevent most reported outbreaks and illnesses associated with drinking water systems.
Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak DWDO reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts.
Among outbreaks described in sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U. The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies i.
Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the often statistically-significant at p water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks.
Delays reducing waterborne and water -related infectious diseases in China under climate change. Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H. Because certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in and by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal diseases and three vector-borne diseases , temperature projections from global climate models, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios, and projected demographic changes.
This development delay summarizes the adverse impact of climate change on WSH-attributable infectious diseases in China, and can be used in other settings where a significant health burden may accompany future changes in climate even as the total burden of disease falls due to non-climate reasons.
Despite China’s rapid progress improving water , sanitation and hygiene WSH access, in , million people lacked access to improved sanitation and million to household piped water. By , climate change is projected to delay China’s rapid progress toward reducing WSH-attributable infectious disease burden by months. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.
A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease , and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier CWP , those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic CWP-Fe , and a control group receiving no intervention.
Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.
Water -related diseases are closely linked with drinking water , sanitation, and hygiene WASH indicators, socioeconomic status, education level, or dwelling’s conditions.
Developing countries exhibit a particular vulnerability to these diseases , especially rural areas and urban slums. This study assessed socioeconomic features, WASH indicators, and water -related diseases in two rural areas of the Colombian Caribbean coast. Most of this population did not finish basic education Only one of the communities had a water supply aqueduct , whereas the other received water via an adapted tanker ship. No respondents reported sewage services; The community with poorer health indicators showed greater health vulnerability conditions for acquisition of water -related diseases.
In summary, water supply and educational level were the main factors associated with the presence of water -related diseases in both communities. Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce’s disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.
Pierce’s disease , caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of cultivated grape, currently restricted to the Americas. To test the long-standing hypothesis that Pierce’s disease results from pathogen-induced drought stress, we used the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip to compare the transcriptional response of Vitis vinifera to Xylella infection, water deficit, or a combination of the two stresses. The results reveal a redirection of gene transcription involving genes with a minimum twofold change P water stress, we find that of the pathogen-induced genes exhibited a significantly stronger transcriptional response when plants were simultaneously exposed to infection and drought stress, suggesting a strong interaction between disease and water deficit.
This interaction between drought stress and disease was mirrored in planta at the physiological level for aspects of water relations and photosynthesis and in terms of the severity of disease symptoms and the extent of pathogen colonization, providing a molecular correlate of the classical concept of the disease triangle in which environment impacts disease severity.
Several environmental factors, including the hardness of drinking water may affect cardiovascular disease risks. We conducted a qualitative Water is scarce and, in general, a low quality resource in desert areas and the Indian desert is no exception.
With this in view, the present study was taken up to survey the status of common water -borne diseases epidemiological trends in the desert city Bikaner NW Rajasthan. In the city, No case of fluorosis was recorded. The highest incidence was that of diarrhoea 5. The worst affected and safe zones in the city were identified and the trends of different diseases in different zones of the city are discussed.
The highest incidence of diseases was noted during summer Relationship of diseases with population attributes like age, education, economy and family size are also discussed. Attributes for contamination of drinking water have been tried to identify and safety measures suggested. Association between water intake, chronic kidney disease , and cardiovascular disease : a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests a protective effect of higher water intake on kidney function and cardiovascular disease CVD.
Here the associations between water intake, chronic kidney disease CKD and CVD were examined in the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Total water intake from foods and beverages was categorized as low 4. When stratified by intake of 1 plain water and 2 other beverages, CKD was associated with low intake of plain water : adjusted OR 2.
Our results provide additional evidence suggesting a potentially protective effect of higher total water intake, particularly plain water , on the kidney.
Karger AG, Basel. Summary Background and objectives In animal models of polycystic kidney disease , the ingestion of large amounts of water promotes diuresis by suppressing plasma levels of arginine vasopressin AVP and renal levels of cAMP, slowing cyst progression. Whether simple water ingestion is a potential therapeutic strategy for individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease ADPKD is unknown.
In this study, a simple method to quantify the amount of water to achieve a specific mean urine osmolality target in patients with ADPKD was developed and tested. Participants were instructed to distribute the prescribed water over waking hours for each of 5 days.
Blood chemistries, hour urine collections, BP, and weight were measured before and after the period of supplemental water intake. Mean urine osmolality decreased and mean urine volume increased; serum sodium, weight, and BP were unchanged. Daily osmolar excretion remained constant, indicating a stable ad lib dietary intake of solutes and protein over the 2-week study period. Conclusions The amount of additional water needed to achieve a urine osmolality target can be approximated from the urine osmolar excretion in ADPKD patients eating typical diets, providing a quantitative method to prescribe supplemental water for such individuals.
Regional disparities in the burden of disease attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation in China. Abstract Objective To estimate the disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China, to identify high-burden groups and to inform improvement measures. Methods The disease burden attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated for diseases resulting from exposure to biologically contaminated soil and water diarrhoeal disease , helminthiases and schistosomiasis and vector transmission resulting from inadequate management of water resources malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis.
The fraction of each health condition attributable to unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene in China was estimated from data in the Chinese and international literature. Findings In , million people in China lacked access to piped drinking water and million lacked access to improved sanitation. The same year, unsafe water and poor sanitation and hygiene accounted for 2. Per capita DALYs increased along an east—west gradient, with the highest burden in inland provinces having the lowest income per capita.
Conclusion Despite remarkable progress, China still needs to conduct infrastructural improvement projects targeting provinces that have experienced slower economic development. Improved monitoring, increased regulatory oversight and more government transparency are needed to better estimate the effects of microbiologically and chemically contaminated water and poor sanitation and hygiene on human health.
Advances in water management and sanitation have reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Delays in reducing waterborne and water -related infectious diseases in China under climate change. Despite China’s rapid progress in improving water , sanitation and hygiene WSH access, in , million people lacked access to improved sanitation and million to household piped water. As certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in and by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrhoeal diseases and three vector-borne diseases , temperature projections from global climate models, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios, and projected demographic changes.
By , climate change is projected to delay China’s rapid progress towards reducing WSH-attributable infectious disease burden by months. This development delay summarizes the adverse impact of climate change on WSH-attributable infectious diseases in China, and can be used in other settings where a significant health burden may accompany future changes in climate even as the total burden of disease falls owing to non-climate reasons. Objective Even when initially successful, many interventions aimed at reducing the toll of water -related infectious disease have not been sustainable over longer periods of time.
Here we review historical practices in water -related infectious disease research and propose an interdisciplinary public health oriented systems approach to research and intervention design.
Practices in developing countries, where the disease burden is the most severe, are emphasized. A case study examines one of the classes of water -related infectious disease. Fundamental change is needed for research on water -related infectious diseases , and we advocate a systems approach framework using an ongoing evidence-based health outcomes focus with an extended time horizon.
The examples and case study in the review show many opportunities for interdisciplinary collaborations, data fusion techniques, and other advances. Conclusions The proposed framework will facilitate research by addressing the complexity and divergent scales of problems and by engaging scientists in the disciplines needed to tackle these difficult problems. Such research can enhance the prevention and control of water.
Water -borne diarrheal disease outbreaks in the Bengal Delta region, such as cholera, rotavirus, and dysentery, show distinct seasonal peaks and spatial signatures in their origin and progression.
However, the mechanisms behind these seasonal phenomena, especially the role of regional climatic and hydrologic processes behind the disease outbreaks, are not fully understood. Overall diarrheal disease prevalence and the population vulnerability to transmission mechanisms thus remain severely underestimated. Recent findings suggest that diarrheal incidence in the spring is strongly associated with scarcity of freshwater flow volumes, while the abundance of water in monsoon show strong positive correlation with autumn diarrheal burden.
The role of large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes that tend to modulate meteorological, hydrological, and environmental conditions over large regions and the effects on the ecological states conducive to the vectors and triggers of diarrheal outbreaks over large geographic regions are not well understood.
We take a large scale approach to conduct detailed diagnostic analyses of a range of climate, hydrological, and ecosystem variables to investigate their links to outbreaks, occurrence, and transmission of the most prevalent water -borne diarrheal diseases.
We employ satellite remote sensing data products to track coastal ecosystems and plankton processes related to cholera outbreaks.
In addition, we investigate the effect of large scale hydroclimatic extremes e. We argue that controlling diarrheal disease burden will require an integrated predictive surveillance approach – a combination of prediction and prevention – with recent advances in climate-based predictive capabilities and demonstrated successes in primary and tertiary prevention.
Water -based exercise training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Land-based exercise training improves exercise capacity and quality of life in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD. Water -based exercise training is an alternative mode of physical exercise training that may appeal to the older population attending pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, those who are unable to complete land-based exercise programmes and people with COPD with comorbid physical and medical conditions.
To assess the effects of water -based exercise training in people with COPD. Handsearching was done to identify further qualifying studies from reference lists of relevant studies. Review authors included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which water -based exercise training of at least four weeks’ duration was compared with no exercise training or any other form of exercise training in people with COPD.
Swimming was excluded. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies were included with a total of participants 71 people participated in water -based exercise training and 54 in land-based exercise training; 51 completed no exercise training. Sample sizes ranged from 11 to 53 participants.
The exercise training programmes lasted from four to 12 weeks, and the mean age of participants ranged from 57 to 73 years. A moderate risk of bias was due to lack of reporting of randomisation, allocation and blinding procedures in some.
Solar disinfection of water reduces diarrhoeal disease : an update. The trial was run in Maasai by Maasai community elders. Children drinking solar disinfected water had a significantly lower risk of severe diarrhoeal disease over two weekly follow up visits; two week period prevalence was While this reduction is modest, it was sustained over a year in free living children. It confirms solar disinfection as effective in vivo as a free, low technology, point of consumption method of improving water quality.
The continuing use of solar disinfection by the community underlines the value of community participation in research. Does water hardness have preventive effect on cardiovascular disease? The aim of this study is to investigate the association of calcium and magnesium concentration of drinking water with cardiovascular disease CVDs in urban and rural areas of a city in Iran. This case-control study was conducted in in Khansar County in Isfahan province, Iran. We used the official data of the Provincial health center regarding the chemical analysis data of urban and rural areas including the hardness, calcium and magnesium content of drinking water.
Data of patients hospitalized for CVD in the only specialty hospital of the city was gathered for the years of and Our study suggests favorable protective effects of water hardness, mainly water magnesium content, on CVDs. Water hardness, as well as calcium and magnesium content of drinking water may have a protective role against CVDs. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms and longitudinal studies are required to study the clinical impacts of the current findings.
Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region’s sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters.
The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases. The UK geochemical environment and cardiovascular diseases : magnesium in food and water. Cardiovascular diseases CVDs contribute approximately one-third to noncommunicable diseases in the UK. The central role of magnesium in CVDs enzyme activity, cardiac signalling, etc.
Mortality and morbidity rates for CVDs may be inversely related to water hardness, suggesting a role for environmental magnesium. Published official and quasi-official data sources were evaluated to establish a model magnesium intake for a representative adult: standardised reference individual SRI , standardised reference male SRM or standardised reference female SRF. For typical dietary constituents, only tap water is probably locally derived and bottled water may not be.
Fruits and vegetables are imported from many countries, while meat, dairy and cereal products represent a composite of UK source areas. Alcoholic beverages provide magnesium, there is doubt about its absorptive efficiency, and they are not locally derived. A simple model was devised to examine the effect of varying dietary contributions to total daily intake of magnesium. Omitting tap or bottled water , the combined intake, solid food plus alcoholic beverages, is Consumers drinking water derived from reservoirs or rivers, or supplementing it with the purest bottled water , improve their magnesium intake only slightly compared with water containing no magnesium.
Choosing bottled water with high magnesium content when the public supply derives from rivers or reservoirs partially satisfies magnesium needs. Real improvement in SRI magnesium nutrition is seen only where water is hard. However, this conclusion cannot be validated until new measurement technologies for body magnesium become available.
The Water -associated Disease Index WADI was developed to identify and visualize vulnerability to different water -associated diseases by integrating a range of social and biophysical determinants in map format. In this study vulnerability is used to encompass conditions of exposure, susceptibility, and differential coping capacity to a water -associated health hazard.
By assessing these conditions, the tool is designed to provide stakeholders with an integrated and long-term understanding of subnational vulnerabilities to water -associated disease and contribute to intervention strategies to reduce the burden of illness. The objective of this paper is to describe and validate the WADI tool by applying it to dengue. A systemic ecohealth framework that considers links between people, the environment and health was applied to identify secondary datasets, populating the index with components including climate conditions, land cover, education status and water use practices.
Data were aggregated to create composite indicators of exposure and of susceptibility in a Geographic Information System GIS. These indicators were weighted by their contribution to dengue vulnerability, and the output consisted of an overall index visualized in map format. The WADI was validated in this Malaysia case study, demonstrating a significant association with dengue rates at a sub-national level, and illustrating a range of factors that drive vulnerability to the disease within the country.
The index output indicated high vulnerability to dengue in urban areas, especially in the capital Kuala Lumpur and surrounding region. However, in other regions, vulnerability to dengue varied throughout the year due to the influence of seasonal climate conditions, such as monsoon patterns. The WADI tool complements early warning models for water -associated disease by providing upstream information for planning prevention and control approaches, which increasingly require a comprehensive and.
Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking–United States, Since , CDC, the U. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease in the United States. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with recreational water , drinking water , water not intended for drinking WNID excluding recreational water , and water use of unknown intent.
Only cases and outbreaks associated with drinking water , WNID excluding recreational water , and water of unknown intent WUI are summarized in this report. Cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported in a separate Surveillance Summary. The 20 drinking water -associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 18 Among the 18 WBDOs with identified pathogens, 12 Arsenic in drinking water and cerebrovascular disease , diabetes mellitus, and kidney disease in Michigan: a standardized mortality ratio analysis.
A standardized mortality ratio SMR analysis was conducted in a contiguous six county study area of southeastern Michigan to investigate the relationship between moderate arsenic levels and twenty-three selected disease outcomes. Disease outcomes included several types of cancer, diseases of the circulatory and respiratory system, diabetes mellitus, and kidney and liver diseases.
Arsenic data were compiled from well water samples tested by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality from through The six county study area had a population-weighted mean arsenic concentration of SMR analyses were conducted for the entire six county study area, for only Genesee County the most populous and urban county , and for the five counties besides Genesee.
Concordance of results across analyses is used to interpret the findings. Elevated mortality rates were observed for both males M and females F for all diseases of the circulatory system M SMR, 1. This is some of the first evidence to suggest that exposure to low-to-moderate levels of arsenic in drinking water may be associated with several of the.
Infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in climate, particularly temperature, and WSH conditions. To explore possible impacts of climate change on these diseases in China in and , we coupled estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal disease and three vector-borne diseases , temperature projections from global climate models using four emissions pathways, WSH-infrastructure development scenarios and projected demographic changes.
This developmental delay provides a key summary measure of the impact of climate change in China, and in other societies undergoing rapid social, economic, and environmental change. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water – United States, Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems.
We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli E. We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease -specific surveillance systems Evol Appl , 15 4 , 18 May BMC Genomics , 22 1 , 06 Mar Vet Res , 51 1 , 28 Oct BMC Genomics , 21 1 , 29 Sep This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources.
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Abstract Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of salmon rickettsial syndrome SRS and is responsible for considerable economic losses in salmon aquaculture. Free full text. Front Genet. Published online Aug 5. PMID: Bassini , 8 Kris A. Christensen , 9 Maria E. Grazyella M. Liane N. Kris A. Maria E. Jean P. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Livestock Genomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics.
Received Mar 24; Accepted Jun The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Go to:. Figure S1: Manhattan plots for resistance to P. Figure S2: Manhattan plots for resistance to P. Keywords: coho salmon, rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, Piscirickettsia salmonis, genome-wide association study, comparative genomics, piscirickettsiosis. Challenge Tests A total of 2,, 2,, and 2, fish belonging to , , and full-sib families from CS, AS, and RT, respectively, were independently challenged with an isolate of P.
GWAS analysis Resistance to SRS was defined as both the number of days to death DD after experimental challenge and the binary survival BS; 0 for surviving individuals at the end of the experimental challenge and 1 for deceased fish. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Table 2 Summary of candidate genes associated with P. Figure S1 Manhattan plots for resistance to P. Click here for additional data file. Figure S2 Manhattan plots for resistance to P.
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Bayesian genome-wide association analysis for body weight in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Full text links Read article at publisher’s site DOI : Smart citations by scite. The number of the statements may be higher than the number of citations provided by EuropePMC if one paper cites another multiple times or lower if scite has not yet processed some of the citing articles.
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Farmed fish for many consumers has the potential to be the only truly sustainable protein apart from insects perhaps! Technical features such as the fluidity, dust, corrosive, odor and hygroscopicity can be the cause of a whole range of problems and dangers in the compound feed production. Development of a SNP linkage map and genome-wide association study for resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus.
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Eight species of Tenacibaculum are currently believed to be related to numerous mortality events of fishes and few mortality events in. Similarities between the clinical presentations of columnaris disease, BCWD, RTFS, and tenacibaculosis may indicate that both genera of bacteria use similar.